, 2011a and Woźniak et al , 2011b The results of this work toget

, 2011a and Woźniak et al., 2011b. The results of this work together with the operational system’s configuration are presented in this paper. Data assimilation is an analysis that combines time-distributed observations and a dynamic model. This kind of analysis gives much better results than simpler methods like the spatial interpolation of observations. According to the way in which the updating is

done in time, data assimilation can be divided into variational and sequential data assimilation. In the first approach, past observations Ganetespib until the present time are used simultaneously to correct the initial conditions of the model. In sequential assimilation, observed data are used as soon as they appear in order to correct the model state. There are many different methods of introducing the observed data into the model, from the Cressman scheme, through Optimal Interpolation, 3-D and 4-D variational methods, to different modifications

of the Kalman Filter. As the 3D CEMBS operational system uses the Cressman scheme, other methods will not be presented in greater detail in this paper. The Cressman method is a simple and computationally fast assimilation scheme, which makes it a good choice for a data assimilation system used to create forecasts in operational mode. It is also very accurate in comparison to Fluorouracil price its low complexity. Its main disadvantage is that it may produce unrealistic extrema in the grid values

near the edges of the spatial domain. It can be also unstable if the model grid density is higher than the observation grid density. However, in the case of satellite data this is not an issue, as the spatial resolution of the satellite data used is higher than the model grid resolution. The Cressman method Amino acid comes down to few simple steps that are performed as follows. Firstly, the background state xb is set equal to the previous forecast performed by the model. Then the satellite data used for the assimilation are stored in the matrix denoted by y. Data suspected of being invalid because of clouds, the presence of ice or any other reason are masked out. The result of the analysis xa is then calculated according to the following equation: xa(j)=xb(j)+∑i=1nw(i,j)y(i)−xb(i)∑i=1nw(i,j)+E2,where i and j represent the satellite and model data grid-points respectively, and di,j is the distance between points i and j. The main parameters of the Cressman method that need to be chosen are the influence radius R and the shape of the weight function w, which determine how the satellite data influence the model. One of the disadvantages of this method is that the influence radius has to be determined by trial and error; this makes parameterization of this method laborious. After many trials with different sets of the parameters, the one that gave the best results was chosen. The radius R of the influence was set to 20 grid-points.

The findings of this study on Egypt DA-HAI rates form an integral

The findings of this study on Egypt DA-HAI rates form an integral part of the INICC and reflect the outcome and process surveillance data that were systematically collected. The study was carried out in 3 ICUs in three hospitals in two cities in Egypt from December 2008

to July 2010. Each hospital had an infection control team (ICT) with a physician, an infection control practitioner (ICP) with at least one year of experience in infection control (Table 1) and a microbiology laboratory to perform in vitro susceptibility testing of clinical isolates using standardized methods. Every hospital’s institutional review board agreed to the study protocol. Patient PFT�� confidentiality was protected by codifying the recorded information, making it identifiable only to the ICT. The INICC surveillance program includes two components: outcome surveillance (DA-HAI rates and their adverse effects) and process surveillance (adherence to hand hygiene and other basic preventive infection control practices) [16]. Investigators were required to complete outcome and process surveillance forms at their hospitals, which were then sent to the INICC headquarters office in Buenos CDK inhibitor review Aires for their monthly analysis. The INICC surveillance program applies methods

and definitions for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for the NNIS/NHSN program [6] and [17]; however, the INICC methods have been adapted to the setting of developing countries due to their different socioeconomic status and specific resource limitations [16]. Outcome surveillance includes the rates of CLAB, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) per 1000 device-days, the microorganism profile, and the length of stay and

mortality in ICUs. The infection control and prevention strategies implemented in INICC member hospitals are based on inexpensive and basic evidence-based measures, including outcome surveillance, process surveillance, education and Tolmetin performance feedback on outcome surveillance and process surveillance [18], [19], [20] and [21]. Process surveillance was designed to assess compliance with easily measurable key infection control practices, such as surveillance of compliance rates for hand hygiene practices and specific measures for the prevention of CLAB, CAUTI and VAP [16]. Hand hygiene compliance by healthcare workers (HCWs), based on the frequency with which hand hygiene is performed when clearly indicated, is monitored by the ICP during randomly selected 1-h observation periods three times per week. Although HCWs are aware that hand hygiene practices are regularly monitored, they are not informed of the schedule for hand hygiene observations.

1 and qTGW1 2 was verified Major effects were also detected for

1 and qTGW1.2 was verified. Major effects were also detected for GY and NGP in population III, with the enhancing alleles from MY46. This is not unexpected since the same direction of allelic effects had been found in the BC2F5 population. Moreover, no significant effects were detected for HD and NP, in accordance with the previous results. It was concluded that qTGW1.2 had multiple effects on NGP, TGW and GY, but little effect on NP and HD. In addition, a significant effect was detected for NGP in population I, with the enhancing allele from ZS97. This suggests that qTGW1.1 also influences other yield traits. Genetic dissection of

QTL regions into different QTL has been frequently reported [3], [25], [26], [27] and [28]. In most of the studies, the QTL was chosen for fine-mapping because the original QTL effect estimated from primary mapping populations was see more considerably large. In validation studies using populations segregating for the target region in an isogenic background, the QTL regions contained two or more QTL linked in coupling [3], [25] and [26]. In rare circumstances, phenotypic effects were tested without previous QTL information when NILs with mapped recombination breakpoints became APO866 available, resulting in

the dissection of different QTL linked in repulsion phase in a random genomic region [27]. The present study provides a new example of QTL dissection; a QTL that showed no significant main effect, but a significant epistatic effect in a primary mapping population, was targeted and tested using a series of populations with sequential segregating regions. By this means, two rice QTL for grain weight

were separated. They were linked in repulsion on the long arm of chromosome 1, where qTGW1.1 was located between RM11437 and RM11615 with the ZS97 allele increasing grain weight, and qTGW1.2 was located between RM11615 and RM11800 with the ZS97 allele decreasing grain weight. The importance of epistasis for the genetic control of yield traits in rice has long been recognized [6] and [29]. However, the individual epistatic loci which showed no significant main effect remain to be tested. For these loci, genetic effects at one locus may differ in magnitude and change in direction depending on the genotype at other loci. Thus validation Cytidine deaminase of the QTL may be jeopardized because the effects may be undetected in a new genetic background. In the present study, a small number of NILs were examined at an early generation stage and verified in samples of larger size in higher generations. This approach could be considered practical for the validation of individual epistatic loci and QTL showing marginal main effects for complex traits in primary mapping populations. QTL analysis has been extensively conducted to investigate the genetic basis of heterosis in rice and maize, with considerable attention paid to the role of dominance and overdominance [28], [29], [30], [31] and [32].

The caption (allogenic gut microbiota infusion) is incorrectly me

The caption (allogenic gut microbiota infusion) is incorrectly mentioned in the right most row (upper and lower panels). The middle row (upper and lower panels) concerns the allogenic gut microbiota infusion and the right most row (upper and lower panels) is the autologous gutmicrobiota infusion. The corrected figure is presented below. “
“Event Date and Venue Details from * ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA ANNUAL MEETING, Portland, OR, USA 16–19 November Contact: ESA,

9301 Annapolis Rd., Lanham, MD 20706-3115, USA Email [email protected] Fax: 1-301-731-4538. http://www.entsoc.org. 2015 *8th INTERNATIONAL IPM SYMPOSIUM, Salt Lake City, UT, USA 24–26 March Contact: E.E. Wolff. Email [email protected] *18th INTERNATIONAL Ipilimumab supplier PLANT PROTECTION CONGRESS, “Mission Possible: Food for All through Adequate Plant Protection”, Berlin/Dahlem, GERMANY 24–27 August Contact see: http://tinyurl.com/3e96vdr. GSK126 solubility dmso * ENTOMOLOGICAL

SOCIETY OF AMERICA ANNUAL MEETING, Minneapolis, MN, USA 14–18 November Contact: ESA, 9301 Annapolis Rd., Lanham, MD 20706-3115, USA. [email protected] Fax: 1-301-731-4538. http://www.entsoc.org. Full-size table Table options View in workspace Download as CSV “
“Intentional food adulteration can be defined as the unscrupulous act of corrupting a genuine food product for pecuniary profit by admixtures with cheaper products and materials which are difficult to detect by the consumers or by simple routine analytical techniques. High-priced commodities are usually targets for adulteration and roasted coffee, a leading commodity in international markets, is rather vulnerable to it. Ground roasted coffee presents physical characteristics (particle size, texture and color) that are easily reproduced by roasting and grinding a variety of

biological materials (cereals, seeds, parchments, etc), thus, it has been the target of fraudulent admixtures with several materials, including lower quality coffees (Alves, Casal, Alves, & Oliveira, 2009; Craig, Franca, & Oliveira, 2012a) and a variety of spurious materials, such as twigs, coffee berry skin and parchment, spent Interleukin-3 receptor coffee grounds, roasted barley, corn and other cheaper grains (Oliveira, Oliveira, Franca, & Augusti, 2009; Reis, Franca, & Oliveira, 2013). A few recent studies have established suitable parameters and markers for detection of coffee husks and roasted starchy grains in ground roasted coffee and instant or soluble coffee Garcia et al., 2009; Nogueira & Lago, 2009; Oliveira et al., 2009; Pauli, Cristiano, & Nixdorf, 2011). Although effective, the analytical methodologies employed are time demanding, expensive and laborious, and usually not appropriate for routine analysis.

Os autores declaram não haver

Os autores declaram não haver http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Staurosporine.html conflito de interesses. “
“A Doença de Wilson (DW), descrita pela primeira vez em 1912 por Kinnear Wilson1, é uma doença rara, hereditária, de transmissão autossómica recessiva, caracterizada por acumulação de cobre no fígado, cérebro, rins e córnea2. A prevalência da DW é de cerca de 1:30 000 e a idade de apresentação varia entre os 3 e os 55 anos de idade3. Em Portugal, estima-se

que, entre 2005 e 2008, tenham surgido 10 novos casos, conforme registo na base de dados internacional «eurowilson». As manifestações clínicas da DW podem atingir múltiplos órgãos e são extremamente variáveis, pelo que é necessário um elevado Dasatinib índice de suspeição para o seu diagnóstico. Os autores apresentam um caso clínico de DW num adulto jovem, cuja primeira manifestação foi sob a forma de doença hepática crónica descompensada, sem diagnóstico prévio. Doente do sexo masculino de 25 anos de idade, sem antecedentes pessoais relevantes, nomeadamente hábitos alcoólicos ou toxicofílicos. O doente recorreu ao Serviço de Urgência por um quadro clínico de febre e tosse com expetoração muco-purulenta com uma semana de evolução. À entrada encontrava-se febril, hemodinamicamente estável e apresentava diminuição do murmúrio vesicular na

base do hemitórax direito. Analiticamente salientava-se aumento dos parâmetros inflamatórios, trombocitopenia (plaquetas

de 65 000), prolongamento do tempo de protrombina com INR de 1,94, AST:116 U/L (valor de referencia (v.ref): 15-39 U/L), ALT: 96 U/L (v.ref: 8-37 U/L), bilirrubina total: 1,3 mg/dL (v.ref: 0-1 mg/dL), albumina:1,6 mg/dL (v.ref: 3,4-5,0 mg/dL) e função renal sem alterações. Na radiografia de tórax apresentava condensação na base do hemitórax direito. O doente foi internado no Serviço de Pneumologia com a hipótese diagnóstica de pneumonia hipoxemiante. Iniciou antibioterapia empírica e houve necessidade de ventilação não invasiva por insuficiência respiratória parcial, com melhoria do quadro. Durante o internamento, Protein tyrosine phosphatase por apresentar epigastralgias e vómitos, realizou endoscopia digestiva alta, que revelou no terço distal do esófago, variz grande sem manchas vermelhas ou ponto de rotura (fig. 1) e mucosa do fundo e corpo com padrão em mosaico (fig. 2). Paralelamente, verificou-se agravamento clínico com aumento do volume abdominal e edema marcado dos membros inferiores. Realizou ecografia abdominal, que revelou fígado pequeno de ecoestrutura heterogénea, compatível com cirrose, esplenomegalia de 17 cm e ascite em moderada quantidade (fig. 3).

However, CHT was applied according to protocol using neoadjuvant

However, CHT was applied according to protocol using neoadjuvant CHT and weekly concomitant CHT. For illustrative purposes, the Vienna protocol was also studied in conjunction with the outcome data of the Rotterdam/Amsterdam series. Summating all cases treated with a boost (C + [C + B] = Ctotal), and comparing them with all patients without an EBT boost, now reveals a significant difference in the LRR (Table 2)

for advanced stage. This, however, was only the case for the T1,2N+ tumors: EBT boost 0% (0/34; Group B) vs. no EBT boost 14% (14/102; Group (C + [C − B]) (p = 0.023). For T3,4 tumors, most likely because of inadequate compound screening assay tumor coverage by virtue of the RNA design, EBT does not significantly decreases the LRR: The difference of 11% (4/38; Group B) vs. 15% (17/111; Group C + (C − B)) Stem Cells inhibitor vs. was found to be nonsignificant (p = 0.463). The regional relapse rate for small tumors was 0%, for advanced tumors depending on

the tumor stage varied from 7% to 16%. An article by Kwong et al. (18) reports the LR to be an independent prognostic indicator for the development of M+. M+ was also shown to correlate with the N+ status of the neck. In a recent issue (2009) of the Chinese Journal of Cancer, an article by Han et al. (19) showed by multivariate analysis that T-classification had no predictive value for local control and survival, whereas N-classification was a significant prognostic factor

for overall (p < 0.001), metastasis-free (p < 0.001), and disease-free survival (p = 0.003). In summary, in their series of 305 NPC patients, N-classification was the main factor for prognosis. Moreover, a higher number of patients with M+ was observed with higher N-stage, that is, N0, N1, N2, and N3 disease corresponded with 0%, 19%, 30%, and 36%, respectively, of patients having M+ disease. In the present study, for the T1,2N+ patients, less LRs were found for those patients treated with an EBT boost (p = 0.023); this corroborates with literature findings (20). In fact, with regard to T3,4N0,+ NPC, the reduction Anidulafungin (LY303366) of the LRR was found to be nonsignificant (p = 0.463). These observations are in line with what is to be expected of EBT using the RNA: Albeit a very useful tool, it was originally designed for small primary lesions (T1,2) only. Moreover, some factors might be of additional advantage in future treatment of advanced NPC cases. (1) Stereotactic radiation is considered a valuable treatment option, in particular for the advanced cases. (2) The RNA is recently modified, that is, slightly redefined by tilting the flanges of the applicator somewhat more laterally ( Fig. 1). This way, it is found to be easier to push the dose laterally into the parapharyngeal space to an adequate dose level. (3) The dose can be prescribed more accurately.

Also, inside the RV there were placed a few (5–7) 2 mm diameter g

Also, inside the RV there were placed a few (5–7) 2 mm diameter glass beads that helped to damp liquid motion when pyruvic acid first entered. The pH of the injected substrate was automatically measured during the dissolution procedure using a pH electrode (ASP200-2-1M-BNC, Active robots Ltd., Radstock, UK) placed in the RV. The pH electrode was connected to a custom built amplifier that had a variable output voltage in response 3-Methyladenine mw to changes in pH, see Supplementary

information. The amplifier was connected to an analogue to digital converter input on the microcontroller. By titrating 45 mg pyruvic acid against 2.0 M sodium hydroxide over a pH range of 1.8-–13.0, voltage versus pH was plotted and used to generate a linear calibration equation. The pH electrode could also be calibrated from within the Arduino software by measuring the electrode voltage in 3 different buffer solutions (pH 4, pH 7, pH 10) and calculating a linear

equation for pH versus voltage. Also connected into the RV was a 6 mm O.D. pipe connected to a vacuum pump (GAST GF3, Gast Manufacturing Inc., MI) to reduce back pressure during transfer of hyperpolarized solution. The vacuum pump was gated on/off by the HyperSense DNP polarizer. Injection volumes for each species are limited to ensure that the circulation Sirolimus in vivo of the animals is not overloaded. The physical constraints of an MRI scanner require a long length of cannula line for i.v. injections, resulting in a significant dead volume that contributes

to the injection volume. This is problematic where hyperpolarized signal is limited. If, for example, saline occupies the dead volume of the cannula then, during injection, its volume must be considered part of the dose and yet it does Neratinib cell line not contribute to the measured hyperpolarized signal. To increase the percentage the hyperpolarized compound contributes to the injected volume, the dead volume was reduced by splitting the cannula into two pathways without introducing additional dead volume; one pathway was then used as a waste stream for clearing the dead space volume whilst the other was used for drug administration into the animal. Flow direction was computer-controlled by valves. A fluid diverter cannula was constructed using two types of tubing: 0.96 mm O.D. polyethylene tube (Portex, Smiths Medical, St. Paul, MN), hereby referred to as ‘small tube’ and 1.0 mm I.D. Tygon tube (Cole-Parmer, London, UK), hereby referred to as ‘large tube’. Tygon tubing was used as its mechanical properties permit multiple compressions without permanent damage. A 19 gauge Luer hub was drilled to enlarge its inner diameter to 2 mm, see Fig. 3, into which the ends of three 30 mm lengths of small tubing were inserted to ensure the hole was almost completely occupied; one was used for the waste pathway, one for the animal pathway which was inserted into a rat vein, whilst the third one was unused and blanked off. The tubes were then sealed to the Luer hub with glue.

Recovery of corals from sublethal stress

Recovery of corals from sublethal stress RG7422 cell line can be rapid (weeks to months), while recovery from partial mortality takes several years. Reef recovery from mass mortality is generally slow and may take many years to decades, while in some cases recovery has not occurred at all. Few examples of recovery of coral reefs after severe sediment damage have been documented. Increased sedimentation is sometimes accompanied by other stresses, prolonging or inhibiting recovery,

making it difficult to generalise or make predictions about recovery (Rogers, 1990). Of 65 examples for which sufficient data exist to make a judgment, coral cover recovered in 69% of cases after acute, short-term disturbances, but only in 27% of cases after chronic, long-term disturbance (Connell, 1997). Wesseling et al. (1999) noted that the recovery time of corals following experimental short-term burial varied among

coral species, ranging from several weeks to months, and also depended on the duration of the sedimentation event. In larger massive corals, sediment burial may cause bleaching and damaged patches, which—if larger than about 2 cm in diameter—do not recover, but will be colonised by algae or sponges preventing recovery of the coral (Hodgson, 1994). Brown Atezolizumab et al. (1990) reported a 30% reduction in living coral cover 1 year after the start of dredging operations at Phuket (Thailand). After the dredging event had ceased, the reef recovered rapidly with coral cover values and diversity indices restored to former levels around 22 months after dredging began. The domination of this reef by massive coral species, which are physiologically adapted to intertidal living and which display partial rather than total colony mortality, may have contributed to its apparent resilience (Brown et al., 2002). Maragos (1972) estimated that 80% of the coral communities in the lagoon of Kaneohe Bay (Hawaii) died because of a combination of dredging, increased sedimentation and sewage discharge. Six years after discharge of sewage into Kaneohe Bay ceased, a dramatic

recovery of corals and a decrease in the growth of smothering algae was reported (Maragos et Carbohydrate al., 1985). Coastal coral reefs adjacent to population centers often do not recover from disturbances, in contrast to remote reefs in relatively pristine environments, because chronic human influences have degraded water and substratum quality, thereby inhibiting recovery (McCook, 1999a and Wolanski et al., 2004). In the Seychelles, where corals had to recover from an intense bleaching event, Acropora species—usually the first to rapidly colonise new empty spaces—recovered substantially more slowly due to recruitment limitation, because these species were virtually eliminated throughout almost the entire Indian Ocean ( Goreau, 1998).

These findings are not in accordance with Doepp et al ’s study th

These findings are not in accordance with Doepp et al.’s study that shows a decrease in velocity in reference group and an increase in the patients’ group, which they relate to sympathetic chain involvement in MS patients [4]. No reflux was found in DMCV, which is in accordance with the results of Baracchini et al. [5]. Of 84 MS cases, 3.6% were found with an increase in the diameter of IJVs in the sitting position, which was not significantly different with the reported frequency percentage of 2.6% among the reference controls. But this is not as much as

reported by Zamboni, showing the impaired postural regulation of the veins. The CSA of IJV typically decreases when changing the position from supine to sitting, because the vein collapses partially. Our study results are in accordance with Doepp et al. [3], [4] and [14]. Mean EDSS score and disease duration of the cases with at least one Gamma-secretase inhibitor ABT-263 research buy CCSVI criteria was

higher than MS patients without any abnormal TCCD findings, which also had a relationship with increasing age and the possible effect of aging on venous system. Zivadinov and Wattjes compared extracranial venous system in MS patients and healthy controls, using MR venography and did not find any significant difference in IJV and vertebral veins blood flow between the 2 groups [15] and [16]. These reports are in agreement with our results that show no statistically significant difference between blood flow velocity in IJV of both sides between MS patients and healthy controls (Table 2). But is in disagreement with Simka [17] and Hojnacki’s [18] studies.

Simka et al. evaluated 70 MS patients using Doppler sonography and reported 90% of the patients with at least 2 of 4 extracranial criteria, being positive and also a high rate of reflux and IJV stenosis [17]. Hojnacki et al. assessed 10 MS patients and 7 healthy controls and observed CCSVI in all MS patients and none of the healthy controls, according to the Doppler over sonography criteria [18]. Centonze and colleagues also did not find a relationship between CCSVI and MS, reporting that the tendency for CCSVI occurrence was the same in patients and control group and also suggest that any possible stricture in the IJV is for compensation of disease process in the patients [6]. As it’s shown in our results, the mean CSA of the right IJV in the supine position was significantly lower in MS group compared with the healthy controls, but stenosis was not significantly more in MS patients. In studies performed by other researchers on patients who underwent internal jugular vein resection for causes such as malignancies, none of them ended to MS [19] and [20]. It must be taken into account that the absence of a relationship between IJV resection (uni- or bilateral) and MS in these studies might be because of a short period of follow up.

The increase in CK released from EDL muscles after addition of LO

The increase in CK released from EDL muscles after addition of LOBE was considered to be indicative of direct myotoxic activity. CK activity was expressed as enzyme units released into the medium per gram of muscle (U/g). One enzyme unit was defined as the amount that catalyzes the transformation of 1 μmol of substrate per min at 25 °C. The genotoxic activity was detected in vivo using the model of envenomation described in

Subsection 2.3.1. The blood, liver, lungs, heart and kidneys were collected at 6, 12 and 48 h after LOBE injection (1 mg/kg, s.c.). The organs were gently homogenized in a cold PBS solution (2 mL) to obtain MAPK inhibitor a cell suspension. Total blood was used for the detection of DNA damage in lymphocytes. Genotoxicity was then evaluated using the comet assay. The alkaline comet assay was performed as described by Singh et al. (1988), with minor modifications (Azqueta et al., 2009 and Tice et al., 2000). Briefly, 20 μL of homogenized organs and blood were mixed with 0.75% low-melting point agarose and immediately spread onto a glass microscope slide that had been pre-coated with a layer

of 1% normal-melting point agarose. The slides were then incubated in an ice-cold lysis solution (2.5 M NaCl, 10 mM Tris, 100 mM EDTA, 1% Triton X-100 and 10% DMSO, pH = 10.0; Gibco BRL, selleck kinase inhibitor Grand Island, Baricitinib NY) at 4 °C for at least 1 h to remove the cellular proteins and membranes, leaving the DNA as “nucleoids”. In the modified

version of comet assay, the slides were removed from the lysis solution and washed three times in enzyme buffer (40 mM HEPES, 100 mM KCl, 0.5 mM Na2-EDTA, and 0.2 mg/mL BSA, pH = 8.0), were drained and were incubated at 37 °C in this buffer with one of the following: 70 μL of Fpg (New England Biolabs, Beverly, MA, USA) at 100 mU per gel for 45 min (for the detection of oxidized purines) or 70 μL of Endo III (New England Biolabs, Beverly, MA, USA) at 100 mU per gel for 30 min (for the detection of oxidized pyrimidines). After lysis, the slides were placed in a horizontal electrophoresis unit that had been filled with fresh buffer (300 mM NaOH and 1 mM EDTA, pH > 13.0), which was left to cover the slides for 20 min at 4 °C to allow the DNA to unwind and reveal the expression of alkali-labile sites. Electrophoresis was conducted for 20 min at 25 V (78 V/cm) and 300 mA. All of the steps outlined above were performed under yellow light or in the dark to prevent additional DNA damage. The slides were then neutralized (0.4 M Tris, pH = 7.5), washed in double-distilled water and stained using a silver staining protocol, as described by Nadin et al. (2001). After the staining step, the gels were left to dry at room temperature overnight and were analyzed using an optical microscope.