1,2 Children account for 15% to 20% of all imported malaria cases

1,2 Children account for 15% to 20% of all imported malaria cases.2–4 Over the past decade, the majority of malaria cases in Europe have occurred in immigrated adults and children who are settled in nonendemic countries, but have traveled to their home country to visit friends and relatives (VFR).1,5–7

These individuals are less likely to seek pre-travel advice, take antimalarial Nivolumab clinical trial prophylaxis or bite prevention measures, and more likely to stay in rural malaria-endemic areas for long periods.2,3,6,8 Costs of nets and antimalarial drugs and cultural barriers may play a role. Because of familiarity with their place of origin, parents may underestimate the risk of malaria in their children.2,9,10 Italian data at this regard are limited.11 Thus, we carried out a study on a sample of 71 parents immigrated from high-risk countries. The study objectives were to assess parents’ awareness of the potential risk of disease without malaria prophylaxis and to assess the compliance to pharmacological GSK3 inhibitor and nonpharmacological prophylaxis in immigrant children settled in nonendemic countries who have traveled to their home country. Between August 1 and November 1, 2009, a questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of parents/guardians native to a malaria-endemic country who sought acute care

for their children at the Emergency Department of the Anna Meyer Children’s University Hospital in Florence, Italy. The center is a tertiary care hospital, and its catchment area encompasses approximately 120,000 children in the Florentine region. In 2009 in the Florentine region the immigrant population consisted Thiamine-diphosphate kinase of 61,518 individuals (16.6% of the total population). About one third (37.7%) came from a malaria-endemic country, the most common were China, Peru, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Senegal.12 The children (aged 0–13 years), native to a non-European Union country, covered by the Florentine

health service, were 10,440.12 Only study subjects capable to speak Italian could be included into the study. Malaria risk by country was determined on the basis of the Yellow Book by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.13 A questionnaire was administrated by one of the investigators (E. V.) to children’s parents or guardians. The questionnaire used was standardized. It was created on the basis of questionnaires used in previous similar studies14,15 and adapted to our setting. Informed consent was collected before the beginning of the study. The study was approved by the local Ethics Committee in July 2009. The questionnaire included demographic data (sex, age, and place of birth) with particular note on the country of origin. Participants were asked whether they have traveled to their origin country during the previous 5 years, the duration of the stay in the endemic area, and the use of preventive measures.

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