Methods: An Internet-based survey was sent to all members of the

Methods: An Internet-based survey was sent to all members of the Endourological Society. Baseline characteristics on practice patterns (geographical region, age, years of practice, days per BYL719 supplier week of endourology, and number of cases in the previous year), compliance with various radiation protection measures (thyroid, chest and pelvic shields, gloves, glasses, and dosimeters), and prevalence of various orthopedic complaints (neck, back, hand, and

joint problems) were assessed. Furthermore, open-ended questions assessed reasons for noncompliance.

Results: Out of 160 surveys returned, 24 were excluded because of incomplete data. There was good compliance with chest and pelvic shields with 97% of endourologists reported wearing these. However, compliance with thyroid shields was only 68%. Furthermore, only 34.3%, 17.2%, and 9.7% of endourologists reported using dosimeters, lead-impregnated glasses, and gloves, respectively. Overall, 86 (64.2%) respondents complained of orthopedic problems. Specifically, 51 (38.1%) complained of back problems, 37 (27.6%) neck problems, 23 (17.2%) hand problems, and 19 (14.2%) complained of hip and knee problems. The prevalence of orthopedic complaints was significantly higher among African endourologists, older endourologists (>40 years), longer duration

of practice (>10 years) and combined annual caseload of ureteroscopies PFTα mouse (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomies (PCNL).

Conclusions: Compliance in the use of thyroid shields, dosimeters, and lead-impregnated glasses and gloves could be improved. Orthopedic complaints among practicing endourologists are common and correlate BB-94 research buy with the annual caseload of combined URS and PCNL.”
“Introduction. It is internationally agreed that diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increased maternal and fetal morbidity and long-term complications. To avoid these complications, it is often necessary to induce birth before

term. The impact of DM on spontaneous preterm birth (spontaneous labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes and/or cervical incompetence resulting in delivery before the completion of 37 gestation weeks) is still unexplained. Preterm birth accounts for the most neonatal deaths and infant morbidities, and therefore it still remains one of the biggest challenges in obstetrics.

Objective. Our study determined if there is an increasing tendency towards spontaneous preterm birth in mothers with gestational and preexisting DM.

Methods. In this retrospective cohort study, 187 pregnant women with gestational DM and preexisting DM were compared to a randomized control group consisting of 192 normoglycemic women concerning gestational age and perinatal outcome. Data were collected by the Medical University of Vienna. Multiple pregnancies and women with severe maternal diseases, such as preeclampsia, were excluded.

Results. Women with DM tended significantly more often to preterm births (P = 0.002).

The measurements were repeated five times during

a growth

The measurements were repeated five times during

a growth season to catch potential seasonal variation. Irradiance gradients resulted in large decreasing gradients of LMA, g(i), V-cmax, and J(max). Relative allocation of leaf N to the different photosynthetic processes was only slightly affected by AZD9291 local irradiance. Seasonal changes after leaf expansion and before induction of leaf senescence were only minor. Structural equation modelling confirmed that LMA was the main driving force for changes in photosynthetic traits, with only a minor contribution of leaf Nitrogen content. In conclusion, mesophyll conductance to CO2 displays a large plasticity that scales with photosynthetic capacity across a tree canopy, and that it is only moderately (if at all) affected by seasonal changes in the absence of significant soil water depletion.”
“The aim of the present work was to study the mechanism of action of curcumin in vasomotion of a physiologically important artery of ruminant i.e. ruminal artery. ACh and SNP were used to study the role of endothelium in relaxation of this artery. Vasorelaxatation by curcumin Fedratinib chemical structure was studied

in a dose dependent manner, on rings precontracted with 5-hydroxy tryptamine and noradrenalin, in presence and absence of L-NAME, 4AP, ODQ and 4AP + ODQ combination. SNP (1 eta M-100 mu M) produced a significant relaxation compared to ACh (0.1-100 mu M) on 5-HT (10 mu M) and NA (10 mu M)

induced contraction in endothelium intact rings. Curcumin (10 eta M-100 mu M) relaxed the vascular rings in dose dependent manner with maximal relaxation up to 20.94% and 13.81% in 5-HT and NA induced contraction, respectively which was potently blocked by ODQ (10 mu M) and combination of 4AP and ODQ (10 mu M) but 4AP (10 mu M) and L-NAME (100 mu M) alone could not block the relaxation and interestingly we observed a slight increase in the tension at higher dose of the agonist (>10 mu M). Therefore in goat ruminal artery, curcumin at least in part, act via direct Selleckchem CDK inhibitor activation of sGC mediated cGMP pathway followed by opening of K+ ion channel. However other mechanisms may not be ruled out. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Through the measurements of magnetothermopower on NaCo(2-x)Fe(x)O(4), we find that the spin entropy is suppressed by doping with high-spin Fe(3+) (S = 5/2) which is revealed by Mossbauer spectra. The Mossbauer spectra and magnetic properties indicate that the Co(4+) concentration is enhanced by Fe doping. A suitable theoretical model is adopted to explain commendably the spin entropy suppression. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3409112]“
“C-13 discrimination in organic matter with respect to atmospheric CO2 (Delta C-13) is under tight genetic control in many plant species, including the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) full-sib progeny used in this study.

Pre-, peri-, and postoperative variables were compared using Stud

Pre-, peri-, and postoperative variables were compared using Student’s t, Fisher’s exact, and analysis of covariance tests.

Follow-up was 6 to 12 months. There were no differences between A-LSCP and AV-LSCP for any vaginal measurements or stage of prolapse (P > 0.05). Although not statistically

different, A-LSCP patients had lower rates of mesh erosion and dyspareunia (P > 0.05). AV-LSCP patients had fewer prolapse symptoms (P = 0.01), but both groups selleckchem had similar surgical satisfaction (P = 0.8).

A-LSCP and AV-LSCP had comparable effects on posterior vaginal measurements; however, mesh erosion and subjective outcomes differed between the two approaches.”
“PURPOSE: To determine the presence, type, and size of optical higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in professional athletes with superior visual acuity and to compare them buy BMS-777607 with those in an age-matched population of nonathletes.

SETTING: Vero Beach and Fort Myers, Florida, USA.

METHODS: Players from 2 professional baseball teams were studied. Each player’s optical aberrations were measured with a naturally dilated 4.0 mm pupil using a Z-Wave aberrometer and a LADAR Wave aberrometer.

RESULTS: One hundred sixty-two players (316 eyes) were evaluated. The HOAs were less than 0.026 mu m in all cases. Spherical aberration

C(4,0) was the largest aberration with both aberrometers. There were small but statistically significant differences between the aberrometers in mean values for trefoil C(3,3)

and C(3,-3) and secondary astigmatism C(4,2). Although statistically significant, the differences were clinically insignificant, being similar at approximately 0.031 diopter (D) of spherical power. A statistically significant difference was found between the professional baseball players and the control population in trefoil C(3,-3). These differences were clinically insignificant, similar to PI3K inhibitor 0.071 D of spherical power.

CONCLUSIONS: Professional baseball players have small higher-order optical aberrations when tested with naturally dilated pupils. No clinically significant differences were found between the 2 aberrometers. Statistically significant differences in trefoil were found between the players and the control population; however, the difference was clinically insignificant. It seems as though the visual system of professional baseball players is limited by lower-order aberrations and that the smaller HOAs do not enhance visual function over that in a control population.”
“We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential property measurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectric materials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique (s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature.

Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd “
“We prepared ver

Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“We prepared very thin

amorphous InSe films and investigated the thickness dependence of the nonlinear absorption by pump-probe and open aperture Z-scan techniques. While thinner films (20 and 52 nm) exhibit saturable absorption, thicker films (70 and 104 nm) exhibit nonlinear absorption for 4 ns, 65 ps, and 44 fs pulse durations. This behavior is attributed to increasing localized defect states in the energy band gap as MLN2238 the film thickness increases. We developed a theoretical model incorporating one photon, two photon, and free carrier absorptions and their saturations to derive the transmission in the open aperture Z-scan experiment. The theory of open aperture Gaussian beam Z-scan based on the Adomian decomposition method was used to fit the experimental curves. Nonlinear absorption coefficients along with saturation intensity thresholds were extracted from fitting the experimental results for all pulse durations. The lowest saturation threshold was found about 3×10(-3) GW/cm(2) for 20 nm film thickness with selleckchem nanosecond pulse duration and increased about four orders of magnitude for 104 nm film thickness.”
“Five specimens of Rhamdia quelen collected from the Lindoia Stream, PR, Brazil, were cytogenetically analyzed. The diploid chromosome number found was 58, including 30 metacentric,

16 submetacentric, 10 subtelocentric, and 2 acrocentric chromosomes. Supernumerary or B chromosomes, frequently observed in this fish SRT2104 manufacturer group, were not detected. One of the individuals was triploid, with 3n = 87. A silver-stained nucleolar organizer region was found on a pair of submetacentric chromosomes

of the diploid specimens, and on three chromosomes of the triploid individual, confirming triploidy. Treatment with fluorochrome chromomycin A3 revealed fluorescent bands coincident with those of the silver-stained nucleolar organizer region, in both diploid and triploid individuals, showing that this is a GC-rich region. Heterochromatin distribution was visualized by the C-banding technique, mainly in the terminal chromosome regions of the individuals and was also observed in the pericentromeric regions of some chromosomes and at both telomeres.”
“Upgrading of potato pulp a byproduct stream from industrial Manufacture of potato starch, is important for the continued economic competitiveness of the potato starch industry. The major part of potato pulp consists of the Whet plant cell wall material which is particularly rich in galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I type pectin. In the work reported here, the release of high-molecular weight pectinaceous dietary fiber polysaccharides from starch free Potato pull) Was accomplished by use of a multicomponent pectinase preparation from Aspergillus aculeatus (Viscozyme (R) L).

The potential for further reducing the burden of cancer by acting

The potential for further reducing the burden of cancer by acting on a VEGFR inhibitor single modifiable exposure, that is, preventing or treating infection, and the extent to which it may be achieved, requires an in-depth knowledge of the contribution of H. pylori infection to the causal mechanisms leading to cancer. We propose a conceptual framework for the interpretation of the role of H. pylori infection in the web of gastric cancer causation, taking into account the nosological heterogeneity of gastric cancer, the induction period for the action of H. pylori infection and its potential role as a necessary component cause. European

Journal of Cancer Prevention 21: 118-125 (C) 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.”
“Objectives: The aim of this work was to assess risk habits, clinical and cellular phenotypes and TP53 DNA changes in oral mucosa samples from patients with Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders (OPMD), in order to create models that Sapanisertib in vivo enable genotypic and phenotypic patterns to be obtained that determine the risk of lesions becoming malignant.

Study Design: Clinical phenotypes, family history of cancer

and risk habits were collected in clinical histories. TP53 gene mutation and morphometric-morphological features were studied, and multivariate models were applied. Three groups were estabished: a) oral cancer (OC) group (n=10), b) OPMD group (n=10), and c) control group (n=8).

Results: An average of 50% of patients with malignancy were found to have smoking and drinking habits. A high percentage of TP53 mutations were observed in OC (30%) and OPMD (average 20%) lesions (p=0.000). The majority of these mutations were GC -> TA transversion mutations (60%). However, patients with OC presented mutations in all the exons and introns studied.

Highest diagnostic accuracy (p=0.0001) was observed when incorporating alcohol and tobacco habits variables with TP53 mutations.

Conclusions: Our results prove to be statistically reliable, with parameter estimates that are nearly unbiased even for small sample sizes. Models 2 and 3 were the most accurate for assessing the risk of an OPMD becoming cancerous. However, in a public health context, model 3 is the most recommended because the characteristics considered are easier and less costly to evaluate.”
“Data on socio-economic status, exposure to risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) and previous health-secking for TB may be included in a TB prevalence survey to gain better knowledge about the distribution of TB in the population as well as a better understanding of what factors are driving the TB epidemic in a given setting. This article provides an overview of how such additional information may be collected.

Most pediatric anesthesiologists (89%) measure the hemoglobin lev

Most pediatric anesthesiologists (89%) measure the hemoglobin level before PRBC transfusion.


This survey identifies significant differences in transfusion practice patterns among pediatric anesthesiologists with a median transfusion threshold of 7.6 [6.6-8.6] g center dot dl-1 and a median PRBC volume transfusion of 11.7 [16.8-6.6] ml center dot kg-1.”
“Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia (GT) is an autosomal recessive inherited bleeding disorder due to AZD6244 order a defect in platelet function. The hallmark of this disease is severely reduced/absent platelet aggregation in response to multiple physiological agonists. Bleeding signs in

GT include epistaxis, bruising gingival hemorrhage, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hematuria, menorrhagia and hemarthrosis.Carrier detection in GT is important to control the disorder in family members. Carrier detection can be done both by protein analysis and direct gene analysis.”
“Aim: A new animal model of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) was made by infecting mice with Mycoplasma penetrans (Mpe). To examine the pathogenesis of IgAN induced by Mpe infection, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) protein levels were compared among study groups.


To make an experimental IgAN animal model, mice were infected with Mpe, SP-4 medium or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) via the urinary tract. To RepSox compare changes in the classical IgAN model, TNF-alpha and IL-6 RNA expression levels CCI-779 cost were measured using RT-PCR, and NF-kB protein was measured using EMSA.

Results: By producing a urinary tract infection with Mpe,

we developed a new animal model of IgAN with a 100% success rate. There was no difference with the classical animal model. We also observed IgG deposition in 66.67% of the Mpe-infection group. Glomerular cell and mesangial matrix proliferation was greater in the Mpe-infection group than in the control groups (p<0.05). In the Mpe-infection and classical groups, TNF-alpha and IL-6 expression levels were much higher than in the control groups (p<0.01). NF-kB expression was much higher in the Mpe-infection group (p<0.05).

Conclusions: We made a new IgAN animal model that will offer a new direction for IgAN research. The activation of inflammation factors was associated with the Mpe induction of IgAN.”

Caudal block is a widely used technique for providing perioperative pain management in children. In this randomized double-blinded study, we evaluated the effects of preoperative caudal block on sevoflurane requirements in children with cerebral palsy (CP) undergoing lower limb surgery while bispectral index (BIS) values were maintained between 45 and 55.

“PIVET Medical Centre has developed an empirical algorithm

“PIVET Medical Centre has developed an empirical algorithm for the dose of FSH administration based upon day-2 FSH, antral follicle count, anti-Mullerian hormone, body mass index, age and smoking parameters in an attempt to

reduce the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome particularly in at-risk women with elevated antral follicle count and anti-Mullerian hormone. The algorithm utilized the incremental dosage capabilities of the recombinant FSH pens to fine-tune the daily concentration Cyclopamine cell line of FSH. Application of the algorithm aimed to minimize any form of excessive follicle recruitment that necessitated increased clinical awareness. The measure used to assess the impact of the algorithm was the number of women who, after oocyte retrieval, were considered to be potentially at risk of any degree of OHSS and were allocated to increased monitoring. Compared with the previous 20-month period, introduction of the algorithm significantly reduced both the incidence of referral for increased monitoring, treatment for OHSS and the

incidence of freeze-all cycles (all P < 0.05). This was particularly focused on those considered to be at risk without reducing the fresh cycle pregnancy rate. (C) 2011, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Recent studies in mice and human identified osteocalcin (OCN) as a bone-derived Citarinostat cost hormone that modulates insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. OCN is synthesized by the bone gamma-carboxyglutamate protein (BGLAP) gene located in the well replicated

region of type 2 diabetes (T2D) linkage on chromosome 1q22. We resequenced BGLAP gene in 192 individuals with T2D and performed case-control studies in 766 Caucasian (461 T2D and 305 controls) and 563 African American individuals (371 T2D and 192 controls). Metabolic effects of BGLAP variants were examined in 127 nondiabetic members of Caucasian T2D families and in 498 unrelated nondiabetic African American and Caucasian individuals. BGLAP expression was tested in transformed lymphocytes from 60 Caucasian individuals. We identified 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in African Americans, but observed only the two known SNPs in Caucasians. No SNP was associated with T2D. Promoter SNP rs1800247 was not associated with metabolic traits including insulin sensitivity (S(I)) or fasting glucose in either population, but nonsynonymous SNP rs34702397 (R94Q) was nominally associated with SI (uncorrected p = 0.05) and glucose-mediated glucose disposal (S(G); uncorrected p = 0.03) in African Americans. No SNP altered measures of insulin secretion or obesity, nor was BGLAP expression associated with rs1800247. Our study was sufficiently powered to exclude BGLAP variants as a major risk factor (OR > 1.5) for T2D in Caucasians, but coding variants in exon 4 may alter glucose homeostasis and diabetes risk in African Americans.

An explanation of this has been given in terms

An explanation of this has been given in terms Nocodazole mechanism of action of the effect of plasmon

coupling on the anharmonic decay route. This explanation is limited to small wave vectors and is not applicable to the case of phonons in general because their interaction with electrons involves larger wave vectors for which the plasma coupling is Landau damped. Nevertheless, a similar decrease of lifetime with density is observed for hot phonons in the channel of a GaN Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor (HFET). We show that this dependence on electron density can be associated with the interaction with the barrier interface mode and the temperature dependence of the phonon lifetimes. It is pointed out that a complete account of the shortening of phonon lifetime in a working HFET requires an analysis of the specific thermal and electron transport properties of the system. Important differences arise between HFETs grown on sapphire and on SiC. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3553439]“
“This work is focused on a facile route

to prepare a new type of nylon 6-based nanocomposites with both high fracture toughness and high strength. A series of nylon 6-matrix blends were prepared via melting extrusion VX-661 supplier by compounding with poly (methyl methacrylate-co-butadiene-co-styrene) (MBS) or poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methylphenyl siloxane-co-styrene) (MSIS) latices as impact modifier and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) as compatibilizer. Layered

organic clay was also incorporated into above nylon 6 blends for the reinforcement of materials. Morphology study suggests that the MBS or MSIS latex particles could achieve a mono-dispersion in nylon 6 matrix with the aid of DGEBA, which improves the compatibilization and an interfacial adhesion between the matrix and the shell of MBS or MSIS. High impact toughness was also obtained but with a corresponding reduction in tensile strength and stiffness. A moderate amount of organic clay as reinforcing agent could gain a desirable balance between the strength, stiffness and toughness of the materials, and tensile strength Rabusertib molecular weight and stiffness could achieve an improvement. This suggests that the combination of organic clay and core-shell latex particles is a useful strategy to optimize and enhance the properties of nylon 6. Morphology observation indicates that the layered organic clay was completely exfoliated within nylon 6 matrix. It is found that the core-shell latex particles and the clay platelets were dispersed individually in nylon 6 matrix, and no clay platelets were present in MBS or MSIS latex particles. So the presence of the clay in nylon 6 matrix does not disturb the latex particles to promote high fracture toughness via particle cavitation and subsequent matrix shear yielding, and therefore, provides maximum reinforcement to the polymer.

A literature search (by Medline and Scopus) was performed The au

A literature search (by Medline and Scopus) was performed. The authors also manually reviewed the references of selected articles for any pertinent material. Beyond the ‘quantity’ of LDL, several buy JPH203 lipid-lowering agents and particularly statins, are only in part beneficial on the ‘quality’of LDL, so that their net effect on small, dense LDL is moderate. Among hypoglycemic agents, insulin and metformin have shown a limited role on small, dense LDL, while pioglitazone is more beneficial. The efficacy of incretin-based

therapies on LDL subclasses remains to be tested by future studies, considering that preliminary studies have reported significant improvements by these agents on triglycerides and HDL-C plasma concentrations. Beyond hypolipidemic drugs, hypoglycemic agents have been found to be significantly effective in modulating levels of small, dense LDL, towards less atherogenic particles in patients with Type 2 diabetes. This may be linked to the reduction in cardiovascular risk obtained by these agents in this category of high-risk subjects.”
“The aim of

this study was to describe the clinical characteristics selleck products of children and young people under 19 with both epilepsy and a psychotic state (schizophrenia-like psychotic episode, organic delusional disorder, or other brief psychotic episode). In total, the clinical case notes for 17 young people with these characteristics were identified retrospectively from three different sources. Compared with a group of young people with psychosis without epilepsy, children with epilepsy and psychosis more frequently had other neuropsychological problems like learning disability and autism. Both groups had a high rate of family histories of mental illness and social disability. Contrary to the findings in adults with psychosis and epilepsy, in this group of young people, psychosis was associated neither selleck screening library with temporal lobe epilepsy nor with mesial temporal sclerosis. The children with psychosis and epilepsy

had a variety of seizure types and structural abnormalities. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“We studied the charge and spin currents in magnetic tunnel junctions in the presence of spin dynamics on the basis of a tight-binding scheme; the spin dynamics is assumed to be present only in one of the two ferromagnetic electrodes. The charge current is pumped by the dynamical spins having the form (m) over dot(1) . m(2), where m alpha(alpha = 1, 2) denotes the direction of magnetization in the electrodes and m(1) represents the dynamic spin. In addition, three types of spin currents are induced by the dynamical spins. One of these spin currents has the form (m) over dot(1) x m(2), whose coefficient is proportional to the product of the spin polarizations of both the electrodes.

an increase in Alx4 in Ambn-deficient calvariae Analysis of thes

an increase in Alx4 in Ambn-deficient calvariae. Analysis of these data indicates that ERP expression follows defined developmental profiles and affects osteoblast differentiation, 3Methyladenine mineralization, and calvarial bone development. We propose that, in parallel to their role in the developing enamel matrix, ERPs have retained an evolutionary conserved function related to the biomineralization of bones.”
“Microfluidic devices as immunosensing platforms have had a great deal of attention in recent years, becoming an emergent technology in biomedical, pharmaceutical, environmental and food

analysis. Combination of the remarkable features of microfluidic platforms with those of immunoassays produces a promising tool for selective, sensitive, automatic and point-of-care testing in real applications.

In this article, we review and discuss different aspects of microfluidic material substrate, fluid handling, multiplexing, and, mainly, surface-modification and immunoreagent-immobilization

strategies since 2005. Although different detection modes can be used in this kind of microfluidic immunosensing Selleck Napabucasin platform, the special features of electrochemistry have greatly expanded this technique, and electrochemical detection is common to the articles that we review. Finally, we comment on the future outlook for microfluidic immunosensing. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: The uncertainty. around number needed to treat (NNT) is often represented through a confidence interval (CI). However, it is not clear how the Cl can help inform treatment decisions. We developed decision-theoretic measures of uncertainty for the NNT.


Design and Setting: We build our argument on the basis that a risk-neutral decision maker should always choose the treatment with the highest expected benefit, regardless RSL3 datasheet of uncertainty. From this perspective, uncertainty can be seen as a source of “”opportunity loss”" owing to its associated chance of choosing the suboptimal treatment. Motivated from the concept of the expected value of perfect information (EVPI) in decision analysis, we quantify such opportunity loss and propose novel measures of uncertainty around the NNT: the Lost NNT and the Lost Opportunity Index (LOI).

Results: The Lost NNT is the quantification of the lost opportunity expressed on the same scale as the NNT. The LOI is a scale-free measure quantifying the loss in terms of the relative efficacy of treatment. We illustrate the method using a sample of published NNT values.

Conclusion: Decision-theoretic concepts have the potential to be applied in this context to provide measures of uncertainty that can have relevant implications. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“In 1998, the first plasmid-mediated gene involved in quinolone resistance (currently named qnrA1) was reported.