Strong (002) preferential orientation indicates the polycrystalli

Strong (002) preferential orientation indicates the polycrystalline nature of the ZnO layer. ZnO grains are mainly GS-1101 datasheet (002)-aligned corresponding to the wurtzite structure of ZnO [23]. It suggests that ZnO layers within multilayers were grown on amorphous

TiO2 layers and showed preferred (002) orientation. In addition, no TiO2 phase is detected in all samples. Taken together, these data suggest that layer growth appears to be substrate sensitive and film thickness also has an influence on the crystallization of films. Figure 4 XRD spectra of ZnO/TiO 2 nanolaminates. (a) Si substrate. (b) Quartz substrate. For further investigation, the lattice constants of ZnO films grown on quartz are calculated according to Bragg’s law [24]: (1) where d is the interplanar spacing, λ is the X-ray buy RG7112 wavelength which equals to 1.54 Å for Cu Kα radiation in this case, and θ is the scattering angle. Thus, the calculated values of d for ZnO (100) and (002) orientations are 2.8 and 2.6 Å, respectively. The grain size (D) of each ZnO layer can also be estimated using the Scherrer formula: (2) where D is the average crystallite size, K (=0.89) is a constant, λ is the wavelength (Å), β is the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of peaks, and θ is the Bragg angle [25]. Figure 5 shows the FWHM values and average grain sizes for ZnO (002) films on

quartz substrates. It can be seen that the grain sizes for the first two samples are around selleck 17 nm, while this value rises to 21 nm for the next three samples. The tendency coincides with the observed increase of transmittance above. Figure 5 FWHM of (002) peaks and average grain sizes for ZnO films deposited on quartz substrates. The cross-sectional HRTEM image of the ZnO/TiO2 nanolaminate is presented in Figure 6. We took the second sample on Si substrate representatively for analysis. As shown in Figure 6a, the ZnO/TiO2 nanolaminate film is well prepared by ALD. The comparatively dark layers are ZnO layers, and the other two gray layers are TiO2

Aspartate layers. In addition, a bright layer is also found between the first TiO2 layer and the substrate, which is a SiO2 interfacial layer, because the Si substrate is slightly oxidized during the ALD process. Furthermore, the thicknesses for TiO2 and ZnO layers are respectively detected, which are consistent with the results measured from SE. However, the thickness of the first TiO2 layer is slightly thinner than expected. It is mainly because growth rate was unsteady at the beginning of the ALD process. In addition, as referred above, the formed interfacial SiO2 layer between TiO2 and Si substrate will snatch oxygen atoms and decrease the growth rate of TiO2. Figure 6 High-resolution TEM images (a, b) of the four-layer ZnO/TiO 2 nanolaminate on Si (100) substrate. Inset shows FFT image of ZnO layer. Crystallized ZnO shows clear lattice in the image, while a crystal structure could hardly be observed in TiO2 layers.

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