5%) isolates this website were collected from
the general wards except for 26 (19.5%) of which were collected from the intensive care units (ICU). 43 females). Ninety percent isolates were collected more than 48 h after hospitalization. All isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cefazolin (MICs ≥ 64 μg mL−1), and manifested 100% resistance to ceftriaxone (MIC range 8–≥ 64 μg mL−1) (Table 1). The resistance rates to drugs with lower overall resistance rate were 26.6%, 22.2%, 10.1%, 8.2%, and 3.8%, to amikacin, cefepime, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefotetan, and imipenem, respectively. All isolates were resistant to cefotaxime with the zone diameters of ≤ 22 mm except for one of 24 mm. A total of 54 of the 158 isolates (34.2%) were classified as MDR (Table 2). No. of MDR phenotype All 158 isolates yielded purified plasmids and harbored β-lactamase genes by PCR. Sequence analysis revealed that bla CTX-M, bla SHV, and bla TEM were present in 134, 120, check details and 92 isolates, respectively. A total
of 149 (94.3%) isolates harbored one or more ESBL genes. Of 134 CTX-M producers, 78 carried the bla CTX-M-14, which was the most common type of ESBLs in seven hospitals, 19 isolates carried bla CTX-M-15, 17 bla CTX-M-27, 12 bla CTX-M-3, 4 bla CTX-M-55, 2 bla CTX-M-65, 2 bla CTX-M-24, 2 bla CTX-M-24a, 1 bla CTX-M-38, and 1 bla CTX-M-98. No group II, III, and V bla CTX-M have been detected. Sequencing of bla SHV
PCR products indicated that 15 of 120 clinical isolates had bla SHV-12 and 7 bla GNAT2 SHV-5. Other ESBL genes were bla SHV2a (n = 3), bla SHV-2 (n = 2), bla SHV-27 (n = 2), and bla SHV-38 (n = 1). The most prevalent non-ESBL bla SHV was SHV-11 (n = 45, 28.5%), which commonly coexisted with other ESBLs except for 2 isolates. Other non-ESBL bla SHV were bla SHV-1 (n = 23), bla SHV-108 (n = 5), bla SHV-28 (n = 4), bla SHV-36 (n = 3), bla SHV-1a (n = 1), bla SHV-26 (n = 1), bla SHV-32 (n = 1), bla SHV-33 (n = 1), bla SHV-60 (n = 1), bla SHV-103 (n = 1), bla LEN (n = 1), and bla LEN-22 (n = 1). One novel SHV variant, of which the deduced protein sequence showed the combination of T18A and L35Q (according to the ABL numbering scheme) substitution in relation to bla SHV-1, named SHV-142, was detected (Fig. 1). Nearly, all of the bla TEM encoded TEM-1 except for one isolate carrying SHV-2a and TEM-135 with a single point mutation in CDS, T396G (data not shown). Seventeen (10.8%) isolates were detected to have two ESBL genes, and 1 (0.6%) isolate was detected to have three ESBL genes (Fig. 1). Five of 6 isolates with resistances to carbapenems also coded the bla KPC-2. An analysis of MICs and resistance patterns of the predominant blaCTX-M-14 (49.4%), blaCTX-M-15 (12%), and blaCTX-M-27 (10.8%) subtypes is shown in Table 2.