RGE supplementation inhibited H. pylori-induced neutrophil infiltration in the gastric mucosal lesions of Mongolian gerbils. The level of LPO, an oxidative damage index, was higher in the gastric mucosal tissues of H. pylori-infected animals than that in noninfected animals ( Fig. 3B). RGE supplementation suppressed the H. pylori-induced increase in the LPO level of gastric mucosal tissues. To investigate the inhibitory effects selleck inhibitor of RGE against H. pylori-induced inflammation, the expression levels of important inflammatory mediators (KC, IL-1β, iNOS) were determined in the gastric mucosal tissues of animals infected
with H. pylori that were and were not supplemented with RGE. As shown in Fig. 4, the mRNA expression of KC, IL-1β, and iNOS in gastric mucosal tissues was greater in H. pylori-infected animals than in non-infected animals. H. pylori-induced mRNA expression of KC, IL-1β, and iNOS http://www.selleckchem.com/products/SNS-032.html was significantly lower in the RGE-treatment group than in the control-diet group. Protein levels of KC and iNOS induced by H. pylori infection were also lower in the RGE-treatment group than in the control-diet group, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting, respectively ( Fig. 5A). As shown in Fig. 5B, the level of phospho-IκBα was greater in the H. pylori-infected groups than in the noninfected group, and was lower in the RGE-treatment
group than in the control-diet group. IκBα, which was lower in the H. pylori-infected groups than in the noninfected group, was maintained in the RGE-treatment group. This suggests Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II that RGE supplementation may inhibit NF-κB activation by suppressing phosphorylation of IκBα in the gastric mucosal tissues of H. pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils. The present study demonstrates that dietary supplementation of RGE fed to Mongolian gerbils for 6 wk improves H. pylori-induced gastric lesions, as determined by histological observation. RGE moderated the H. pylori-induced increase in neutrophil infiltration, MPO activity, LPO level, and the expression of inflammatory
mediators (KC, IL-1β, iNOS). RGE was also associated with a reduction in IκΒα phosphorylation relative to that measured in animals fed the control diet. This demonstrates that RGE has an anti-inflammatory effect on H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation in Mongolian gerbils. However, the number of viable bacteria obtained from the gastric mucosal tissues of H. pylori-infected animals fed a diet supplemented with RGE was not different from that obtained from animals receiving a control diet without RGE. RGE may not have an antibacterial effect on H. pylori colonization in the gastric mucosa of Mongolian gerbils. A previous study demonstrated that panaxytriol isolated from ginseng was effective in inhibiting H. pylori growth with an MIC of 50 μg/mL . However, our preliminary study using gastric epithelial AGS cells showed that RGE did not affect the growth of H. pylori for 24 h culture (data not shown).