Cluster analysis identified a high risk group (the ‘high risk met

Cluster analysis identified a high risk group (the ‘high risk metabolic

cluster’) with features akin to adult metabolic syndrome. Belonging to the ‘high risk metabolic cluster’ was examined in relation to dietary patterns using logistic regression, adjusting for aerobic fitness and socio-demographic factors. Higher ‘Western’ dietary pattern scores were associated with greater odds for the ‘high risk metabolic cluster’ (p for trend = 0.02) and greater mean values for total cholesterol (p for trend = 0.03), waist circumference (p for trend = 0.03) and BMI (p for trend = 0.02) in girls, but not boys. Scores for the ‘Healthy’ dietary pattern were not related to the ‘high risk metabolic Combretastatin A4 cluster’ but were inversely associated with serum glucose in boys and girls (p for trend = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively) and were positively associated with HDL-C in boys (p for trend = 0.02). Conclusions: Dietary patterns are associated with CVD risk factors and the clustering of these risk factors in adolescence. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“In the field of regenerative medicine, various types of biodegradable and nonbiodegradable scaffolds have been Rocilinostat developed for urinary tract tissue-engineering

applications. Naturally derived or synthetic materials have been tested to determine their properties and their effectiveness. However, the majority of the current literature focuses on the reconstruction of the urethra, urinary diversion, and urinary bladder, while limited data have been published regarding the use of biomaterials in ureteral reconstruction. Tissue engineering might offer alternative and less invasive therapeutic options for long ureteral defects compared with

the current surgical reconstructive techniques and their potential complications. In this article, we aimed to review the literature regarding ureteral tissue engineering through a Medline search and describe new potential options for future clinical applications. We concluded that the available literature is inconclusive since the superiority of a specific scaffold has not been demonstrated and the latest developments of regenerative medicine have not been evaluated in ureteral tissue engineering yet.”
“Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) are suitable platforms for miniaturized biosensing CYT387 JAK/STAT inhibitor based on their optical and magneto-optical properties. It is possible to enhance the sensitivity of specific kinds of NPs by exploiting their optical and magneto-optical properties under suitable external magnetic field modulation. Here, the magneto-optical properties of Fe-Ag core-shell ferromagnet-noble metal NPs have been investigated as a function of the incident light frequency. For Fe-Ag NPs with a concentration ratio around 25: 75, an optical absorption band centered at 3 eV due to localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) excitation is observed.

Various modalities have been used for the treatment of CCHS (trac

Various modalities have been used for the treatment of CCHS (tracheotomy, SN-38 chemical structure NPPV, and diaphragmatic pacing). Treatment of these patients in the ICU should be tailored to the needs of individual patients and their families.”
“The purpose of this study was to report the feasibility and procedural technique of minimal or no fluoroscopy in the ablation of ventricular arrhythmias in the pediatric population. A retrospective review was performed of all patients <21 years old who underwent ablation of ventricular arrhythmias using three-dimensional (3D) mapping with no or minimal fluoroscopy at a single institution. Five patients

underwent electrophysiology studies for ventricular tachycardia or frequent premature ventricular complexes. Three patients had right-sided arrhythmias, and two patients had left-sided arrhythmias. Electro-anatomic mapping with the 3D EnSite NavX system and radiofrequency ablation was used in all patients. No fluoroscopy was used in the patients with right-sided

arrhythmias. The two patients with left-sided arrhythmias had 1.0 and 1.9 min of fluoroscopy, respectively. The mean procedure time was 168 min (range 95 to 270). There has been no recurrence at mean follow-up of >1 year. Three-dimensional mapping systems have allowed pediatric electrophysiologic procedures to be performed with minimal to no fluoroscopy in patients with challenging arrhythmias, including ventricular HSP990 arrhythmias. The decrease in radiation exposure decreases the risk of long-term adverse sequelae resulting from radiation exposure, which is especially important in children.”
“Glibenclamide improves outcomes in rat models of stroke, with treatment as late as 6 h after onset of ischemia shown to be beneficial. Because the molecular target of glibenclamide, the sulfonylurea receptor 1 (Sur1)-regulated NCCa-ATP channel, is upregulated de novo by a complex transcriptional mechanism, and the principal pathophysiological target, brain swelling,

requires hours to develop, we hypothesized that the treatment window would exceed 6 h. We studied a clinically relevant rat model of stroke in which middle cerebral PHA-848125 cell line artery occlusion (75% < reduction in LDF signal a parts per thousand currency sign90%) was produced using an intra-arterial occluder. Recanalization was obtained 4.5 h later by removing the occluder. At that time, we administered recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA; 0.9 mg/kg IV over 30 min). Immunolabeling showed modest expression of Sur1 5 h after onset of ischemia, with expression increasing 7- to 11-fold (P < 0.01) by 24 h. Rats were administered either vehicle or glibenclamide (10 mu g/kg IP loading dose plus 200 ng/h by constant subcutaneous infusion) beginning 4.5 or 10 h after onset of ischemia. In rats treated at 4.5 or 10 h, glibenclamide significantly reduced hemispheric swelling at 24 h from (mean +/- SEM) 14.7 +/- 1.5% to 8.1 +/- 1.6% or 8.8 +/- 1.1% (both P < 0.

The existence of this pathway in Arabidopsis plants is also evide

The existence of this pathway in Arabidopsis plants is also evidenced in vivo. These enzymes are also able to oxidize the naturally occurring uncommon polyamines norspermine and thermospermine, the latter being involved in important plant developmental processes. Furthermore, data herein reveal some important differences in substrate specificity among the various AtPAOs, which PLK inhibitor suggest functional diversity inside the AtPAO gene family. These results represent a new starting point

for further understanding of the physiological role(s) of the polyamine catabolic pathways in plants.”
“A mid-infrared vertical external cavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) based on undoped BEZ235 order PbS is described herein. A 200 nm-thick PbS active layer embedded between

PbSrS cladding layers forms a double heterostructure. The layers are grown on a lattice and thermal expansion mismatched Si-substrate. The substrate is placed onto a flat bottom Bragg mirror again grown on a Si substrate, and the VECSEL is completed with a curved top mirror. Pumping is done optically with a 1.55 mu m laser diode. This leads to an extremely simple modular fabrication process. Lasing wavelengths range from 3-3.8 mu m at 100-260 K heat sink temperature. The lowest threshold power is similar to 210 mW(p) and highest output power is similar to 250 mW(p). The influence

of the different recombination mechanism as well as free carrier absorption on the threshold power is modeled. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3610407]“
“Congenital microcephaly with intracranial calcification is a rare condition presented in heterogeneous diseases. Here, we report the case of a 1-year-old boy with severe congenital microcephaly and diffuse calcification. Neuroimaging studies showed a diffuse simplified gyral pattern; a very thin cortex; ventricular dilatation; very small see more basal ganglia, thalamus, and brainstem; and cerebellar hypoplasia with diffuse calcification. Clinical features of intrauterine infections, such as neonatal jaundice, hepatomegaly, and thrombocytopenia, were not found. Serological tests, cultures, and polymerase chain reaction analysis were negative for viral infections. The etiology of pseudo-toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex syndrome is still unknown. This study describes the most severe form of pseudo-toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex syndrome reported to date, with the patient showing microcephaly and calcification or band-like intracranial calcification with simplified gyration and polymirogyria.”
“Life in extreme environments poses unique challenges to photosynthetic organisms.

Any pigmented lesion in the oral cavity not clearly clinically am

Any pigmented lesion in the oral cavity not clearly clinically amenable to diagnosis should be excised for histologic confirmation. Analysis of the lymph node status, supplemented by sonography or other imaging, and postoperative histologic evaluation of the size and depth should be performed routinely. In cases in which the mucosal melanoma may not be the primary site, all potential primary sites should be examined.

(C) 2009 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons J Oral Maxillofac Surg 67:1409-1415, 2009″
“Transplant recipients require immunosuppression to prevent allograft rejection, placing them at risk of opportunistic Elafibranor clinical trial infections including fungal infection. Difficulties in managing fungal infections include: establishing diagnosis, poor treatment response, drug interactions and toxicity. We report our single centre experience of treating fungal infections using systemic non-Amphotericin current generation antifungals. Patients receiving inpatient antifungal therapy from September 2005 to December 2010 were identified from pharmacy records. Fungal infections

were retrospectively classified according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) criteria. Treatment outcomes were classified in a manner similar to those used in clinical trials. ACY-738 chemical structure Two hundred and forty-nine recipients received antifungal treatment, 204 lungs and 45 hearts. One hundred and one patients received Voriconazole, 82 Caspofungin and 65 received both agents. One patient was unsuccessfully treated with additional Amphotericin. Treatment duration varied from 1.5 to 12 weeks. One hundred and sixty-five patients had a complete response, 24 had a partial response and in 60 patients treatment was unsuccessful. The response to systemic non-Amphotericin based antifungal therapy was high. We

propose that diagnostic criteria without positive identification of a fungus allow treatment to be started early with few clinically relevant side effects.”
“Background: Safer injection facilities (SIFs) reduce risks associated with injecting drugs, particularly public injection and overdose mortality. They exist in many countries, but do not exist in the Nutlin-3 supplier United States. We assessed several ethical, operational, and public health considerations for establishing SIFs in the United States.

Method: We used the six-factor Kass framework (goals, effectiveness, concerns, minimization of concerns, fair implementation, and balancing of benefits and concerns), summarized needs of persons who inject drugs in the United States, and reviewed global evidence for SIFs.

Results: SIFs offer a hygienic environment to inject drugs, provide sterile injection equipment at time of injection, and allow for safe disposal of used equipment.

The good catalytic activity is attributed to interfacial reaction

The good catalytic activity is attributed to interfacial reactions of the Fe catalyst particles with the underlying CoSi2 support. We obtain ohmic conduction from the support layer to the carbon nanotube forest. VC 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3592234]“
“Attention deficit is one of the most frequent symptoms in children with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). However, selleck inhibitor it is unknown whether this is a global attention deficit or a deficit in a specific attention network. We used the attention network test (ANT) in children with ICE, who were not being treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), to determine the efficiencies

of three independent attention networks (alerting, orienting, and executive control). Children

with IGE showed a significant deficit in their executive control network and in overall reaction time. However, they did not show any ACY-241 deficit in their alerting or orienting networks. These results suggest that IGE specifically affects the executive control network. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Objective:This systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to integrate previous findings and summarize the effect size of the association of interleukin-6 (IL-6) genetic polymorphism -174G/C with susceptibility to prostate cancer (PCa). Methods: All eligible studies of IL-6 -174G/C polymorphism and PCa risk were collected from the following electronic databases: PubMed and the Cochrane Library, with the last report up to June 1, 2011. Statistical analyses were performed by Review Manage version 5.0 and Stata 10.0. Results: A total of 7 independent studies, including 9,959 cases and 12,361 controls, were identified. When all studies were pooled, we did not detect a significant association of -174G/C polymorphism with PCa risk. When stratifying for race, similar results were obtained; evidence of a significant relation was absent in both Caucasians and the mixed population. After stratifying the studies by study types, -174G/C polymorphism was

significantly associated with PCa risk when examining PFTα supplier the contrast of CC + GC versus GG (OR = 1.44, 95% Cl = 1.05-1.98, p = 0.03) in cohort studies but not in case-control studies. Conclusions: Our review suggest that -174G/C polymorphism is associated with an increased PCa risk in two cohort studies from one article. Additional well-designed studies are warranted to validate these findings. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Heavy-metal halide semiconductors have attracted much interest recently for their potential applications in radiation detection because the large atomic numbers (high Z) of their constituent elements enable efficient radiation absorption and their large band gaps allow room temperature operation. However, defect properties of these halides and their connection to carrier transport are little known.

Approximately 50% of all papers involved cattle, a fifth of which

Approximately 50% of all papers involved cattle, a fifth of which concerned dairy cattle or beef x dairy crossbreds. A quarter of papers concerned swine, 15% concerned sheep, and 3% considered laboratory rodents, with the proportional contribution of sheep research VE-821 clinical trial decreasing across time. Authors from the Midwestern and Southern sections of the American Society of

Animal Science had greater proportional contributions than Western and Northeastern section authors, and contributions of university and state experiment station authors outnumbered those of USDA-ARS authors. The proportional contribution of international authors increased across time, reaching 45% for the 2000s, as that of university and experiment station authors decreased and that of USDA-ARS authors remained fairly constant. Subjective analysis suggested substantial levels of creativity, innovation, and cooperation check details in JAS animal breeding research, a strong international perspective, but also a marked degree of imitation and repetition in subject matter content.”
“Microstructural and electroluminescence measurements are carried out on boron implanted dislocation engineered silicon light emitting diodes (LEDs) co-implanted with the rare earth thulium to provide wavelength tuning in the infra-red. Silicon LEDs operating in the

range from 1.1-1.35 mu m are fabricated by co-implantation of boron and thulium into n-type Si (100) wafers and subsequently rapid thermally annealed to activate the implants and to engineer the dislocation loop array that is crucial in allowing light emission. Ohmic contacts are applied to the p and n regions to form conventional p-n

CFTRinh-172 in vivo junction LEDs. Electroluminescence is obtained under normal forward biasing of the devices. The influence of implantation sequence (B or Tm first), ion dose, and the post-implantation annealing on the microstructure and electroluminescence from the devices is studied. A clear role of the heavy-ion Tm co-implant in significantly modifying the boron induced dislocation loop array distribution is demonstrated. We also identify the development of dislocation loops under thermal spikes upon heavy ion (Tm) implantation into Si. The results contribute to a better understanding of the basic processes involved in fabrication and functioning of co-implanted devices, toward achieving higher light emission efficiency. VC 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3614036]“
“The authors describe mitochondrial studies in a 6-year-old patient with a seizure disorder that can be seen in myoclonic epilepsy and ragged red fibers. Using a recently developed noninvasive approach, analysis of buccal mitochondrial enzyme function revealed severe respiratory complex I and IV deficiencies in the patient. In addition, analysis of buccal mitochondrial DNA showed significant amounts of the common 5 kb and 7.4 kb mitochondrial DNA deletions, also detectable in blood.

Under zero and reverse bias voltage, the photoresponse of these d

Under zero and reverse bias voltage, the photoresponse of these diodes is solely due to the photovoltaic effect in the GaSb depletion region. For forward bias voltages >400 mV, we also observed a photoconductive response from

the InAsSb layer. The proposed physical mechanism is quite different from the one suggested in a recent paper.”
“Background-Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a key role in cardiovascular disease, in particular aneurysm formation and plaque rupture. Surprisingly, little is known about MMP substrates in the vasculature.

Methods and Results-We used a proteomics approach to identify vascular substrates for 3 MMPs, 1 of each of the 3 major classes of MMPs: Human arteries were incubated with MMP-3 ALK inhibitor (a member of stromelysins), MMP-9 (considered a gelatinase), and MMP-14 (considered a member of the collagenases and of the membrane-bound MMPs). Candidate substrates were identified by mass spectrometry based on increased release from the arterial tissue on digestion, spectral evidence for proteolytic degradation after gel separation, and identification of nontryptic cleavage sites. Using this approach, novel candidates were identified, including extracellular matrix proteins associated with the basement membrane, elastic fibers (emilin-1), and other extracellular proteins (periostin, tenascin-X). Seventy-four nontryptic cleavage sites were detected, many of which were shared among different MMPs. The proteomics

findings were validated by immunoblotting and by digesting recombinant/purified Volasertib solubility dmso proteins with exogenous MMPs. As proof-of-principle, results were related to in vivo pathology by searching for corresponding degradation products in human aortic tissue with different levels of endogenous MMP-9.

Conclusions-The application of proteomics to identify

MMP targets is a new frontier in cardiovascular research. Our current classification of MMPs based on few substrates is an oversimplification of a complex area of biology. This study provides a more comprehensive assessment of potential MMP substrates in the vasculature and represents a valuable resource for future investigations. (Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2013;6:106-117.)”
“The rates of change of polymer properties (glass transition temperature, weight fraction sorbed water, and polymer molecular weight) were determined in Poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) films under accelerated storage conditions. Films were stored at 70 degrees C and 95%, 75%, 60%, 45%, or 28% relative humidity. Weight fraction sorbed water was determined by thermogravimetric analysis, the glass transition temperature (Tg(mix)) of the polymer/water mixture by modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry, and PLGA number-average molecular weight (M(n)) by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Rates of moisture increase and Tg(mix) decrease were related to the decrease in PLGA M(n) through a modification of the Gordon-Taylor equation.

To increase interfacial compatibility between the hydrophilic fib

To increase interfacial compatibility between the hydrophilic fibers and the hydrophobic polymer matrix, the fibers were treated with vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMO), while PLA was modified with 4,4-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI). It was found that PLA/Sitka composites treated with VTMO

and MDI exhibited improved thermal and mechanical properties, compared to the unmodified control. The work also demonstrates that there is potential to improve biobased composites by utilizing the natural variability of wood fibers. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 2616-2623, 2009″
“We have systematically investigated the impact of device size BEZ235 order scaling on the light output, spectral shift, and self-heating of 400 nm InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Devices with diameters in the range 20-300 mu

m have been studied. It is shown that smaller LED pixels can deliver higher power densities (despite the lower absolute output powers) and sustain higher current densities. Investigations of the electroluminescence characteristics of differently sized pixels against current density reveal that the spectral shift is dominated by blueshift at the low current density level and then by redshift at the high current density level, owing to the competition between the bandgap shrinkage caused by self-heating and band-filling effects. The redshift of the emission wavelength with increasing Geneticin clinical trial current density is much faster and larger for the bigger pixels, suggesting that the self-heating effect is also size dependent. This is further confirmed by the junction-temperature rise measured by the established spectral shift method. It is shown that the junction-temperature rise in smaller pixels

is slower, which in turn explains why the smaller redshift of the emission wavelength with current density is present in smaller pixels. The measured size-dependent junction temperature is in reasonable agreement with finite element method simulation results.”
“The antioxidant properties of 6 legumes: green gram (Vigna radiate), red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), chickpea (Cicer arietinum), red lentil (Lens esculenta), soybean (Glycine max), and moth beans (V. aconitifolia), and Blebbistatin ic50 their morphological fractions were evaluated before and after cooking. Kidney beans had the highest total phenolic content (8.9 mg ferulic acid equivalents/g), DPPH free radical scavenging activity (38.1%), reducing power (85.5 mu mol ascorbic acid equivalents/g), and total flavonoid content (0.9 mg catechin equivalents/g). Highest metal chelating activity was observed for moth beans (93.3%). The antioxidant properties of the seed coat in all the legumes were manifold higher as compared to the whole legume or its respective endosperm and removal of the seed coat significantly reduced the antioxidant activity.

The presence of PVA domains dispersed in the PDMS network disrupt

The presence of PVA domains dispersed in the PDMS network disrupted the network and allowed PDMS to crystallize, as observed by the crystallization and melting peaks in the DSC analyses. Because of the presence of hydrophilic (-OH) and hydrophobic (Si-(CH(3))(2)) domains, there was an appropriate hydrophylic/hydrophobic balance in the semi-IPNs prepared, which led to a maximum equilibrium water content of similar to 14 wt % without a loss in NVP-HSP990 Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor the ability to swell less polar solvents. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 115: 158-166, 2010″
“We present theoretical studies of the structural stability, electronic, and magnetic properties

of MBi (M=V, Cr, Mn) compounds using the full-potential linear augmented plane wave method. To find the most stable structure for each compound, total energy calculations of several phases are

considered, and magnetic and antiferromagnetic states for each compound are taken AZD8055 in vitro into consideration. Our calculation indicates that the antiferromagnetic NiAs structure is the stable state for VBi and CrBi, whereas MnBi is stable in the ferromagnetic hexagonal NiAs structure. Our results for the magnetic stability, the stable structure, and the structural parameters are in perfect agreement with theoretical calculation and experimental values. The calculated total magnetic moment for MnBi of 3.55 mu(B) agrees with the measured moment of 3.60 mu(B). For the zinc-blende phase, our calculations predict that VBi, CrBi, TAK-228 and MnBi are half-metallic ferromagnet with a magnetic moment 2, 3, and 4 mu(B), respectively. The magnetism comes essentially from the d orbitals of V, Cr, and Mn atoms, while

the half metallic character is the fingerprint of the p(Bi)-d(M) interaction. The exchange interaction increases, while the crystal field splitting decreases from V to Mn with the increases of the filling of the d bands of the transition metals M atoms, as a consequence: (i) For the spin-up channel, the antibonding state Gamma(12) is pushed close to E(f) for VBi, while in CrBi and MnBi, this state is below the Fermi level for CrBi and MnBi, respectively. (ii) The t(2g)(Gamma(15)) bands of both majority and minority spins are filled while the e(g)(Gamma(12)) bands of minority spin are empty. (iii) The exchange splitting Delta e(g) is roughly equal to A M, where M is the magnetic moment. We found A similar to 0.93 mu(B)/eV, 0.99 mu(B)/eV, and 1 mu(B)/eV for VBi, CrBi, and MnBi, respectively, this is close to the value of the exchange integral I of transition metals which have a value about 0.9 mu(B)/eV. We also studied the effect of spin-orbit coupling on the half-metallicity of these compounds. We found a relative small reduction in polarization, ranging from above P=97,27% for CrBi, P=85.49% for CrBi to P=81.88%, for MnBi.

Methods and Results: We applied

Methods and Results: We applied Salubrinal Apoptosis inhibitor mixed linear regression to examine relationships between baseline SHFM scores and EQ-5D derived health utilities collected longitudinally in a large clinical trial. A 1-unit increase in SHFM score (higher predicted mortality) was associated with a 0.030 decrease in utility (P < .001) and an additional 0.006 decrease per year (P < .001). With SHFM score modeled as a categorical variable, EQ-5D utilities for patients with

rounded SHFM scores of 1 or 2-were significantly lower (-0.041 and -0.053, respectively; both P < .001) and declined more rapidly over time (-0.011 and -0.020, respectively; both P <= .004) than for patients with scores of -1.

Conclusions: Patients with higher SHFM-predicted mortality had significantly lower health utilities at baseline and greater rates of decline over time, compared with patients with lower SHFM-predicted mortality. These relationships can be applied when examining the cost-effectiveness of heart failure interventions.”
“Microwave breakdowns in output multiplexer filters, boarded on telecommunications satellites, can affect the device and damage it. During tests at atmospheric selleck screening library pressure, these breakdowns are generally initiated in the vicinity of a noble metal coated frequency adjustment

screw. A modeling of the microwave breakdown ignition is developed taking into account the thermoelectronic emission from the screw and the noble metal atom vaporization. The influence of field strength is particularly investigated to predict the breakdown delay after the application of the microwave power. Then, a specific structure has been designed and built and a dedicated measurement procedure has been proposed. As it will be

shown, the test structure experimental behavior agrees well with the theoretical one. Finally, the results given by the numerical modeling of microwave breakdown are compared to the measurements performed in a five-pole filter of an output this website multiplexer.”
“Background: Medication nonadherence and depressive symptoms predict hospitalization and death in patients with heart failure (BF). Depressed patients have lower medication adherence than nondepressed patients. However, the predictive power of the combination of medication adherence and depressive symptoms for hospitalization and death has not been investigated in patients with HF.

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the combined influence of medication adherence and depressive symptoms for prediction of cardiac event free survival in patients with HF.

Methods and Results: We monitored medication adherence in 216 HF patients who completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) at baseline. Medication adherence was measured objectively with the use of the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS). Patients were followed for up to 3.5 years to collect data on cardiac events.