This is consistent with findings from another study of this cohor

This is consistent with findings from another study of this cohort, in which a substantial proportion of individuals delayed starting HAART even when national guidelines recommended initiation of treatment [17], and a recent UK analysis showing that a high proportion of patients who experience a CD4 decline to <200 cells/μL do so while under regular follow-up [18]. Among those initiating HAART at a low CD4 cell count, the median buy U0126 follow-up

after diagnosis was 5 years, suggesting that rapid decline in CD4 cell count is not the main explanation for this. Late presenters are known to have a high risk of clinical progression in the first 3 months after HIV diagnosis, regardless of HAART initiation. As we wished to capture

the inherent efficacy of HAART rather than any consequence of poor adherence or loss to follow-up, our main analyses were restricted to individuals who remained under follow-up and on treatment at each time-point – our question, therefore, was whether patients who managed to remain alive and under care throughout this high-risk period this website could ultimately achieve as good an outcome on treatment as other patients. We did, however, perform sensitivity analyses to assess the robustness of our findings to patients who were lost to follow-up after the first 3 months. On the whole, our conclusions remained unchanged in these analyses. However, as loss to follow-up rates were (somewhat Phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase unexpectedly) highest in ideal starters, clinical progression rates were significantly higher in ideal starters in these sensitivity analyses. However,

we do not believe that this higher loss to follow-up rate really reflects a higher clinical progression rate in this group – it is more likely that patients with a higher CD4 cell count felt more able to discontinue treatment, attend less frequently (with reduced viral load monitoring) or transfer their care to other centres. There are some important limitations of this study to note. Firstly, we have considered two arbitrary time-points (48 and 96 weeks) in order to be consistent with those used in many randomized trials. Alternative analyses that we could have used may have considered the time to an initial virological response, time to virological rebound or time to clinical progression after starting HAART. However, these approaches can be heavily affected by the frequency of monitoring; if monitoring is less (or more) frequent in late presenters, then the degree of bias that is introduced may be greater. Secondly, as already noted, our analyses excluded patients who presented late but who did not start HAART, either because they died very soon after diagnosis or because they chose to remain untreated. Thus, our outcomes cannot be applied to all patients who present late, but only to the group who survive long enough to initiate HAART.

Other studies have also shown 800 mg to be effective and safe [71

Other studies have also shown 800 mg to be effective and safe [71,74]. In contrast, other PI3K Inhibitor Library chemical structure data support using standard-dose efavirenz. In some cohort studies (in which most participants had a low body weight), 600 mg efavirenz has been given with rifampicin without lower drug exposure or compromised clinical efficacy [75,76]. In one study, efavirenz levels were not predicted by weight or gender and were not associated with HIV clinical outcomes, even though half the cohort had concentrations below the expected therapeutic range (1000–4000 ng/mL). This, as well as other studies, confirms the large interpatient variability in efavirenz levels

[77]. In one study of Black South Africans taking rifampicin, no difference was seen in mid-dose efavirenz levels between patients on efavirenz 800 mg (n=31)

and those on efavirenz 600 mg (n=29) [78]. This finding may be the result of a high frequency of polymorphisms in CYP450 2B6, which occur with a rate of 20% in the Black population compared with 3% in the White population [79,80]. The frequency of polymorphisms in CYP2B6 may also explain high rates of clinical toxicity in some studies [81]. Recommendation [AII]: Patient under 60 kg: Use efavirenz 600 mg once daily (od). It should be made clear to patients that they may need an extra 200 mg efavirenz in addition to Atripla. Rifampicin and nevirapine are both used widely in resource-poor countries because they are cheap and readily available. There are data indicating that nevirapine levels are reduced by 20–55% by rifampicin [82–87]. this website Urease The World Health Organization (WHO) suggest that no ‘lead-in’ period for nevirapine is needed if the patient is already on rifampicin – but they give no recommendation rating for this strategy. To overcome the problem of low nevirapine levels

with rifampicin, one trial administered 400 mg nevirapine as lead-in dose, increasing to 600 mg [88]. The pharmacokinetics were satisfactory but there was a high incidence of nevirapine hypersensitivity during the dose escalation period. Two cohort studies have shown high rates of HIV viral suppression with standard-dose nevirapine and rifampicin [83,89]. However, in a recent study of 1283 patients starting HAART while on rifampicin, 209 people on nevirapine and 1074 on efavirenz, virological failure rates were higher, with an odds ratio of 2.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8–4.7] in the nevirapine arm vs. the efavirenz or not-on-TB-treatment arm [90]. We recommend that, where alternatives exist, rifampicin should not be used with nevirapine. [DII] If there are no alternatives to using nevirapine with rifampicin, then normal doses should be used and TDM performed. No data are available and no studies are planned. It is thought that they should not be coadministered.

3) As shown previously, Ala-Gln

could be produced by a m

3). As shown previously, Ala-Gln

could be produced by a metabolically engineered E. coli without any modification of an efflux system (Tabata & Hashimoto, 2007). Regulation of the gene expression such as an induction by intracellular accumulation of Ala-Gln or the redundancy of dipeptide transporters may be involved in Ala-Gln production. To elucidate the role of dipeptide transporters in Ala-Gln fermentation, functional analyses of individual genes, such as transcription analyses or characterization of a deletion mutant, are required. Considering that dipeptide accumulation is inhibitory to E. coli, dipeptide transporters are promising MAPK inhibitor tools to develop a dipeptide-producing strain. We thank Yumi Takahashi and Mayumi Fukano for their technical assistance. We also thank Shin-ichi Hashimoto and Satoshi Koizumi for helpful discussions. Table S1. The spectra of dipeptides to which dipeptide transporter candidates conferred resistance. Please note: Wiley-Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting materials supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing material) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. “
“Two strains of aerobic, non-spore-forming, Gram-negative,

rod-shaped bacteria (ND5 and MY14T), previously isolated from urban soil using the membrane-filter enrichment technique, were characterized. Analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequence grouped strains ND5 and MY14T within the family

Oxalobacteraceae (Betaproteobacteria). The highest pairwise sequence similarities for strain ND5 were found with members of the genus Herminiimonas, SB203580 manufacturer namely with Herminiimonas saxobsidens NS11T (99.8%) and Herminiimonas glaciei UMB49T (99.6%). Although some fatty acid profiles, physiological and biochemical differences exist between strain ND5 and the respective Herminiimonas-type strains, DNA–DNA hybridization experiments confirm that strain ND5 is 5-FU nmr a member of the H. glaciei genospecies. Taxonomical analyses revealed a wider range of variability within this genus than considered previously. The highest pairwise nucleotide similarity for strain MY14T was found with Oxalicibacterium flavum (96.8%). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and cpn60 gene sequences, DNA–DNA hybridization, fatty acid profiles, physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain MY14T from other Oxalicibacterium species representing a new species, for which the name Oxalicibacterium solurbis sp. nov. (type strain MY14T=NBRC 102665T,=CCM 7664T) is proposed. Extremely small free-living bacteria, showing biovolumes generally lower than 0.3 μm3in situ (Koch, 1996), are known to be present in a wide variety of natural environments and have been classified with terms such as ultramicrobacteria (UMB), nanobacteria or picobacteria (Koch, 1996).

These findings could inform the design of interventions to improv

These findings could inform the design of interventions to improve uptake of HMRs by residents and health professionals, in turn leading to better medicine use and safety. “
“Objectives  The impact of over-the-counter (OTC) availability of chloramphenicol eye drops and eye ointment was investigated on the prescribing and overall supply of ophthalmic chloramphenicol in primary care. Methods  Primary care prescription data Pexidartinib mw for ophthalmic chloramphenicol and ophthalmic

antibacterials in England and Wales were analysed from December 2003 (month 1) to September 2008 (month 58). OTC data were analysed from June 2005 when the first OTC product was launched (months 19 to 58). Key findings  In the 40 months following reclassification

more than 2.9 million packs (53.9 per 1000 population) of chloramphenicol were sold in England and 152 024 (51.7 per 1000 population) in Wales. In the 12 months to September 2008 sales of the drops and ointment were 67 and 40% of their respective prescription volumes in England. In Wales sales of drops were 52% and ointment 26% of their respective prescription volumes. The number check details of chloramphenicol packs sold was 2.2 times greater than the calculated reduction in ophthalmic antibacterial prescription items in England and 2.9 times greater than the reduction seen in Wales. Conclusion  Following the reclassification of chloramphenicol there have been significant increases in the supply of the ophthalmic antibacterials in both England and Wales. “
“Objectives  To explore factors associated with Scottish pharmacists’ views and attitudes to continuing professional development (CPD). Methods  A retrospective principal component analysis of 552 (22.8%) questionnaires returned from a sample of 2420 Scottish pharmacists randomly selected from the 4300 pharmacists registered with the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain and with a

Scottish address. Key findings  Principal Nitroxoline component analysis of questionnaire items (n = 19) revealed four factors associated with Scottish pharmacists’ views and attitudes to CPD: having positive support in the workplace, having access to resources and meeting learning needs, having confidence in the CPD process and motivation to participate in the CPD process. Community pharmacists were identified as the subgroup of pharmacists that needed most support for CPD regarding all four factors, while pharmacists working in primary care felt that they had most support in the workplace in comparison to other sectors (P < 0.05) and better access to resources and meeting learning needs when compared to community (P < 0.001) and hospital (P = 0.008) colleagues. Pharmacists working in primary care also felt more motivated to participate in the CPD process than those in the community (P < 0.001), and hospital pharmacists reported having more confidence in the CPD process compared to community pharmacists (P < 0.05).

Some regenerative ability, however, is found also in reptiles and

Some regenerative ability, however, is found also in reptiles and birds, and even in mammals. The recognition that neurogenesis indeed occurs in the CNS

of all adult vertebrates challenges the view that there is a simple relationship between maintenance of neurogenic regions in the adult CNS and regenerative capability. The aim of this review is to revisit this relationship in the light of recent literature focusing on selected examples of neurogenesis and regeneration, and discuss possible frameworks that may help to elucidate the relationship Saracatinib ic50 between adult neurogenesis and regeneration. This could provide useful paradigms for harnessing regeneration in the human CNS. “
“Neuron firing patterns underpin the detection and processing of stimuli, CP690550 influence synaptic interactions, and contribute

to the function of networks. To understand how intrinsic membrane properties determine firing patterns, we investigated the biophysical basis of single and repetitive firing in spinal neurons of hatchling Xenopus laevis tadpoles, a well-understood vertebrate model; experiments were conducted in situ. Primary sensory Rohon–Beard (RB) neurons fire singly in response to depolarising current, and dorsolateral (DL) interneurons fire repetitively. RB neurons exhibited a large tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current; in DL neurons, the sodium current density was significantly lower. High-voltage-activated calcium currents were similar in both neuron BCKDHA types. There was no evidence of persistent sodium currents, low-voltage-activated calcium currents, or hyperpolarisation-activated currents. In RB neurons, the potassium current was dominated by a tetraethylammonium-sensitive slow component (IKs); a fast component (IKf), sensitive to 4-aminopyridine, predominated

in DL neurons. Sequential current-clamp and voltage-clamp recordings in individual neurons suggest that high densities of IKs prevent repetitive firing; where IKs is small, IKf density determines the frequency of repetitive firing. Intermediate densities of IKs and IKf allow neurons to fire a few additional spikes on strong depolarisation; this property typifies a novel subset of RB neurons, and may activate escape responses. We discuss how this ensemble of currents and firing patterns underpins the operation of the Xenopus locomotor network, and suggest how simple mechanisms might underlie the similar firing patterns seen in the neurons of diverse species. “
“A burst of action potentials in hippocampal neurons is followed by a slow afterhyperpolarization (sAHP) that serves to limit subsequent firing. A reduction in the sAHP accompanies acquisition of several types of learning, whereas increases in the sAHP are correlated with cognitive impairment. The present study demonstrates in vitro that activity-dependent bidirectional plasticity of the sAHP does not require synaptic activation, and depends on the pattern of action potential firing.

mutans Thus, we searched for an indicator for the establishment

mutans. Thus, we searched for an indicator for the establishment of S. mutans. Methods.  To evaluate the changes caused by the establishment of S. mutans in the microbiota of the infant oral cavity, we monitored changes in the oral microbiota of two pre-dentate infants over a 3-year period and in a cross-sectional study of 40 nursery school-aged children by cultivation of saliva on nonselective blood agar, Mitis-Salivarius agar, and Mitis-Salivarius agar supplemented with bacitracin combined with identification of selected isolates. Results.  Two longitudinal observations suggested that the establishment of S. mutans would induce a decrease in α-haemolytic

bacteria in the microbial population of the oral cavity. This suggestion was compensated with the results of cross-sectional study, and it was revealed that the selleck chemicals llc establishment of 103 CFU/mL of mutans streptococci in saliva might be predicted

by a microbiota comprising less than approximately 55% of α-haemolytic. Conclusion.  Decrease in the proportion of α-haemolytic bacteria in saliva of infant was found to be applicable as an indicator to predict the establishment of S. mutans and to assess dental caries risk as a background for planning of dental care and treatment in the infants before infection with S. mutans. “
“Purpose.  The aim of this study was to evaluate an infant oral health education programme, using a pre–post test design, for parents attending a paediatric clinic. Methods.  The subjects were parents

attending the well baby appointments JAK cancer at 3, 6, and 9 months of age. The study participants were men and women, all with an infant between 3 and 12 months of age. A 16 question assessment in the form of a questionnaire was completed immediately before and after the introduction of a 30 min those educational intervention in the form of a PowerPoint presentation and a video of infant oral hygiene for parents. The parents completed the questionnaire twice (pre–post test design) in the same visit. Recruited parents attended only one presentation. The presentation educated parents about infant oral health and provided anticipatory guidance. Results.  Forty-seven parents or caretakers participated in the study. On the pre-test 28% had a score of 70% or less, and on the post-test 87% got a score of 88% or better. On the pre-test, 72% had a score of 70% or higher, and on the post-test 87% got a score of 88% or higher. Most parents (80%) reported that the presentation was helpful and indicated that the information would change the way they care for their baby’s teeth at home. Conclusion.  This study demonstrated the effectiveness of a 30 min PowerPoint and Video presentation in improving the oral health knowledge of parents caring for an infant.

, 1999; Eddyani et al, 2004; Kotlowski et al, 2004; Johnson et

, 1999; Eddyani et al., 2004; Kotlowski et al., 2004; Johnson et al., 2007), indicating

that M. ulcerans is probably present in such samples. However, other closely related Mycobacterium species including Mycobacterium liflandii, Mycobacterium Pseudoshottsii, and mycolactone-producing Mycobacterium marinum strains (Stinear et al., 1999; Stragier et al., 2007) have been found to harbor IS2404. Thus, the conventional IS2404 PCR assay cannot be relied upon for the specific detection of M. ulcerans. In order to increase specificity, facilitate rapid analysis of specimens, and to interpret the results of both environmental and clinical specimens Ivacaftor purchase with certainty, Fyfe et al. (2007) developed two TaqMan Multiplex real-time PCR assays targeting three independent repeated sequences in the M. ulcerans genome, two multicopy insertion sequences (IS2404, IS2606), and a multicopy sequence encoding the ketoreductase

B domain (KR-B). These real-time PCR assays quantify the copy number of the targets, allowing Y-27632 supplier the differentiation of M. ulcerans from other IS2404-containing mycobacteria. Moreover, the assay allows for the control of PCR inhibitors such as humic and fulvic acids, commonly present in environmental samples. In spite of its advantages for the analysis of clinical and environmental samples (high throughput, high sensitivity and specificity, less prone to contamination, and Fluorouracil chemical structure inhibition control), facilities for real-time PCR are available only in a few research laboratories in West-African BU-endemic countries, including Ghana. However, swift analysis of environmental samples could be crucial

in the search for the M. ulcerans reservoir. Therefore, the current study describes the first application of real-time PCR for the detection of M. ulcerans in environmental samples at the Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research (NMIMR) in Accra, Ghana. Both the acquisition of these technologies through international technology transfer and their diffusion will foster effective technological change as follow-on innovation and adaptation occurs. The real-time PCR assays were carried out as described by Fyfe et al. (2007). Briefly, IS2404/internal positive control (IPC) mixtures contained 1 μL of template DNA, 0.9 μM of each primer, 0.25 μM of the probe, 1 × TaqMan® Universal PCR Master Mix (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA), and TaqMan exogenous IPC reagents (Applied Biosystems) in a total volume of 25 μL. IS2606/KR assays were preformed on IS2404-positive samples in a similar multiplex way without IPC. Detection was performed on a 7300 real-time PCR System (Applied Biosystems) using the following thermal profile: one cycle of 50 °C for 2 min, one cycle of 95 °C for 10 min, and 40 cycles of 95 °C for 15 s and 60 °C for 1 min.

Data collected from TTOs included admission and discharge dates,

Data collected from TTOs included admission and discharge dates, demographics and pharmaceutical details (e.g. number PD0325901 of items prescribed, number of prescription changes, validation status). The primary outcome measure was 30-day readmission status; readmission interval was the secondary outcome measure. Ethical approval was not required. Two hundred eighty-three TTOs were

completed during the baseline evaluation: 101 (35.7%) were validated by a pharmacist and 42 (14.8%) resulted in readmission. Two hundred ninety-six TTOs were completed during the intervention evaluation: 223 (75.3%) were validated by a pharmacist and 36 (12.2%) resulted in readmission. The average age of those readmitted (73.2) was seven and

a half years older than those not readmitted (65.7) (p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 3.20–11.8); patients aged 65 or older were significantly more likely to be readmitted (17.6%, 63/357) than younger patients (6.8%, 15/222) (p < 0.01). The number of prescription changes on the TTO was not found to differ significantly between those who were readmitted and those who were not; however, those readmitted Ku 0059436 were prescribed an average of two more items at discharge (10.8) than those who were not (8.4) (p < 0.01, 95% CI for the difference 0.989–3.90). The readmission behaviour of patients prescribed seven or less items at discharge (n = 221) was found to differ significantly (p < 0.01) from patients prescribed eight or more (n = 264). The results indicate where pharmacists may have the most impact on reducing readmissions; specifically patients over 65 years of age and those taking eight or more medicines. Further work

is needed to determine whether readmission can be reduced in these groups by application of pharmaceutical interventions and to establish the long term benefits of focusing limited resources. Mandating pharmacist validation of TTOs in working hours was associated with a substantial increase in proportion validated and a notable reduction in readmission rate. It is acknowledged that the activity of the Trust’s Virtual Ward varied during the study, however there was not a pharmacist on the team at that time; further work will be carried Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase out to determine the influence of this on the results observed. 1. Health & Social Care Information Centre Clinical Indicators Team. (2013). Hospital Episode Statistics, Emergency readmissions to hospital within 28 days of discharge -Financial year 2011/12. 2. Care Quality Commission. (2009). Managing patients medicines after discharge from hospital. I. Uddina, B. Dean Franklina,b aUCL School of Pharmacy, London, UK, bImperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK Our objectives were to identify recent UK newspaper reports of medication errors, to explore the types of error reported, and how these were portrayed.

1) and shared homology with these BY kinases (29–32% identity) B

1) and shared homology with these BY kinases (29–32% identity). BtkB was an integral membrane protein harboring two transmembrane domains (amino acids 12–30 and 419–438) flanking a large periplasmic loop and had a cytoplasmic C-terminal region with a Walker A, A′, and B ATP-binding motif and a tyrosine-rich C terminus (Y-cluster). The phosphorylated form of the Y-cluster could be stabilized by interaction with a positively charged arginine- and lysine-rich flexible loop

region (RK-cluster) of a neighboring subunit (Lee et al., 2008). The RK-cluster (amino acids 465–484) also existed in BtkB. The phosphorylation of see more ‘internal’ tyrosine residues, Y569 in Wzc and Y574 in Etk, is essential for Wzc and Etk kinase activities (Grangeasse et al., 2002; Lee et al., 2008). Also, BY kinase from Gram-negative bacteria contain a conserved arginine residue (R609 in Wzc and R614 in Etk) between Walker A and B motifs. The ‘internal’ tyrosine residues Acalabrutinib block the active site, and interaction of phosphorylated ‘internal’ tyrosine residue with arginine

residue would unblock the catalytic site and, as a result, activate the kinase (Lee et al., 2008). However, BtkB does not possess a tyrosine or arginine residue in this position. To determine whether BtkB has tyrosine kinase activity, recombinant BtkB protein was overexpressed and purified from E. coli; however, BtkB was not expressed in E. coli when the btkB gene was cloned into pCold TF and pCold vectors. It is reported that the

periplasmic region of Wzc has no effect on the extent of phosphorylation of the C-domain (Grangeasse Erythromycin et al., 2002); therefore, a cytoplasmic fragment (Ser444-Ser710)-coding region of the btkB gene was amplified by PCR using primers and cloned into a pCold TF vector. The expression plasmid was transferred to E. coli BL21 (DE3). The fusion protein [trigger factor (TF; 52 kDa)-BtkB] with an N-terminal hexahistidine tag was expressed in the soluble fraction in E. coli. The fusion protein produced was purified by affinity chromatography, and then the purified BtkB was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, which revealed a single band corresponding to a molecular mass of 82 kDa (Fig. 2a). The value obtained by SDS-PAGE corresponded well with the molecular mass calculated from the predicted amino acid sequence of TF-tagged BtkB (81.0 kDa). The purified cytoplasmic domain of BtkB was incubated with [γ-32P] ATP in the presence of Mg2+, Mn2+, or Co2+ ion and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and autoradiography. As shown in Fig. 2b, autophosphorylation activity was only achieved in the presence of Mg2+ ion. Also, phosphorylation of BtkB was detected by Western immunoblotting with antiphosphotyrosine monoclonal antibody (PY20; Fig. 2c), indicating that BtkB is a tyrosine protein kinase. The cytoplasmic domain of Wzc from E. coli has been shown to harbor ATPase activity (Soulat et al.

“Background The diagnosis and treatment of malaria in non

“Background. The diagnosis and treatment of malaria in non-endemic countries presents a continuing challenge. Methods. Medical records were reviewed for 291 patients hospitalized with microscopically confirmed malaria diagnosed consecutively in two infectious diseases wards in Milano, Italy, between 1998 and 2007. Results. One hundred eighty-six (64%) were male; median age was 35 y (range 16–72 y). Of the 291 patients, 204 (70.1%) were non-immune travelers and 87 (29.9%) were considered semi-immune. In 228 patients Smoothened Agonist solubility dmso (78.3%), Plasmodium falciparum was identified as the only causative malarial parasite.

In 48 (16.5%), 9 (3.1%), and 1 (0.3%) cases, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, and Plasmodium malariae were diagnosed, respectively. Five mixed infections were observed (1.7%). Of the 233 falciparum cases (including mixed infections), 222 (95.3%) were acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. Fifty-four percent of P vivax infection were acquired in the Indian subcontinent

and Southeast see more Asia. Chemoprophylaxis was used by 23.6% (61/258) subjects with only 32 fully compliant with the recommended regimen. At admission, fever, chills, and headache were present in 95.5, 59.5, and 55.3% of cases, respectively. Elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase levels (95%) and thrombocytopenia (82%) were the most frequently detected laboratory abnormalities. Thirty-five patients (15%) with P falciparum malaria presented with severe malaria according to the WHO criteria; in 19 patients (54.3%) more than one criteria was present. All patients

recovered uneventfully. Inappropriate anti-malarial treatment occurred in 25 patients (8.6%) and were recorded from more frequently among patients with a diagnosis of P vivax malaria (29.1%) as opposed to those affected by P falciparum (3.9%). Conclusions. In our study more than two thirds of imported malaria cases were due to P falciparum with an excess of cases diagnosed in immigrants starting from the year 2000. Despite many available guidelines inappropriate initial malaria treatment is relatively frequent even when patients are managed in an infectious diseases ward. The number of malaria cases reported in European Union Countries each year is between 10,000 and 12,000 (crude rate 2.3/100,000 population) with France, UK, Germany, and Italy reporting the majority1; approximately 1300–1500 cases per year are reported in the USA (CDC).2 Several studies have highlighted the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria among travelers and immigrants and the problems related to delayed diagnosis, but only few data exist on the treatment of imported malaria.3–6 In fact, malaria treatment is becoming increasingly difficult due to widespread drug resistance of Plasmodium falciparum and the more recent emergence of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax7,8 together with possible drug-associated adverse events.