The expression of NGF and its receptors in a wide range of tumor cells show its critical relationship with tumor proliferation and invasion, especially in nerve tissue. So its signal pathway was able to be used as the target for the early intervention and therapy. Effect of Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules on CCA PNI Neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAM) belong to the adhesion molecule immunoglobulin family, which belongs to IgG super family and mediates cellular adhesion.
NCAMs play critical navigation and docking roles by binding to target cells during the growth and development of the nervous system. NCAM is Selleck APR-246 highly expressed in peripheral nerve tissue. It has an ecotropic relationship to nervous tissue and plays a critical role in the genesis and metastasis of CCA. Some researches found that NI is correlated with NCAM expression, indicating that NCAM molecules on the surface of tumor cells might induce them to migrate and adhere to nerve cells after the tumors breach their capsules. In particular, NCAM expression is highly correlated with CCA PNI, and with CCA dedifferentiation. Moreover, NCAM was shown to be a specific indicator for bile duct NI. A study of the
relationship between the expression of NCAM and the anti-oncogene DPC4, and CCA NI, showed that the NCAM expression rate in CCA with NI was significantly higher than in CCA without NI, indicating that NCAM is related to CCA NI and might play a critical role in the nerve invasion process. NCAM expression rates generally increase with CCA invasiveness, indicating a relationship IPI-549 between NCAM expression and cancer cells’ ability to adhere to nerve tissue, thus enabling nervous invasion. Recent evidence indicates that activation of the proto-oncogene K-Ras in pancreatic cancer cells could induce the up-regulation of PSA-NCAM on tumor cell surfaces. PSA-NCAM could bind to N-cadherin, blocking N-cadherin mediated cell adhesion, increasing pancreatic cancer cell migration ability and facilitating tumor cell metastasis to nerve during tissue. The above investigations all suggest
that NCAM levels are positively correlated to CCA NI, and which might serve as indicators for prognosis in CCA. Effect of Matrix Metalloproteinases on CCA PNI Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc finger-dependent endogenous proteinases. Previous investigation showed MMPs to be critical enzymes which are able to decrease ECM, in addition, it was a specific growth factor (for instance, ECM related growth factor) hard to diffuse in the activation of ECM or hidden by matrix, so which that facilitate the tumor cells through the basement membrane. MMPs are involved in www.selleckchem.com/products/sn-38.html multiple cancer-related processes such as tumorigenesis, growth, migration, angiogenesis and anti-apoptotic functions[30, 31].