gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and

gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and full text searches were conducted until November 2011. The searches in Chinese Bio-medical

Literature Database, China Network Knowledge Information, Chinese Science Journal Database, Chinese Medical Citation Index, Wanfang Database, and full text searches were conducted until January 2011. Manufacturers and authors were contacted.\n\nSelection criteria\n\nAll randomised clinical trials comparing bezafibrate at any dose or regimen in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis with placebo or no intervention, or with 17DMAG another drug. Any concomitant interventions were allowed if received equally by all treatment groups in a trial.\n\nData collection and analysis\n\nTwo authors extracted data. RevMan Analysis was used for statistical analysis of dichotomous data with risk ratio (RR) or risk difference (RD), and of continuous data with mean difference (MD), both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Methodological domains were used to assess risk of systematic errors (bias). Trial sequential OICR-9429 order analysis was used to control for random errors (play of chance).\n\nMain results\n\nSix trials with 151 Japanese patients were included. All trials had high risk of bias. Four trials compared bezafibrate plus

UDCA with no intervention plus UDCA (referenced as bezafibrate versus no intervention in the remaining text), and two trials compared bezafibrate with UDCA. No Cediranib clinical trial patient died and no patient developed liver-related complications in any of the included trials. Bezafibrate was without significant effects on the occurrence of adverse events compared with no intervention (5/32 (16%) versus 0/28 (0%)) (RR 5.40, 95% CI 0.69 to 42.32; 3 trials with 60 patients; I-2 = 0%) or with UDCA (2/32 (6%) versus 0/37 (0%)) (RR 6.19, 95% CI 0.31 to 122.05; 2 trials with 69 patients; I-2 = 0%). Bezafibrate significantly decreased

the activity of serum alkaline phosphatases compared with no intervention (MD -186.04 U/L, 95% CI -249.03 to -123.04; 4 trials with 79 patients; I-2 = 34%) and when compared with UDCA (MD -162.90 U/L, 95% CI -199.68 to -126.12; 2 trials with 48 patients; I-2 = 0%). These results were supported by trial sequential analyses. Bezafibrate compared with no intervention significantly decreased plasma immunoglobulin M (MD -164.00 mg/dl, 95% CI -259.47 to -68.53; 3 trials with 50 patients; I-2 = 46%) and serum bilirubin concentration (MD -0.19 mg/dl, 95% CI -0.38 to -0.00; 2 trials with 34 patients; I-2 = 0%). However, the latter two results were not supported by trial sequential analyses. Bezafibrate compared with no intervention had no significant effect on the activity of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (MD -1.22 U/L, 95% CI -11.97 to 9.52; 4 trials with 79 patients; I-2 = 42%) and serum alanine aminotransferase (MD -5.61 U/L, 95% CI -24.

Isolated liver cells were cultured with 10(-3) M of cholesterol,

Isolated liver cells were cultured with 10(-3) M of cholesterol, and with 10(-3) M of cholesterol and addition of 10(-6), 10(-8), or 10(-10) M of DEX. After 24, 48, and 72 h, the cell proliferation, bile salt concentration,and profile were examined. The proliferative activity of control hepatocytes

ranged between 0.841 +/-0.05 and 0.937 +/-0.007. In opposite to 10(-8) M DEX, the addition of 10(-6) and 10(-10) M of DEX resulted in a decrease in proliferative activity of cells after 48 h of incubation (0.519+/-0.12 and 0.533+/-0.13, respectively). The presence of DEX resulted in elevation of bile salt level in samples obtained after 72 h (3.97+/-1.2 mu M/L; 3.42+/-2.0 mu M/L, and 3.52+/-0.3 mu M/L in the presence of 10(-6) M, 10(-8) M, and 10(-10) M of DEX, respectively). Proliferative response of rat hepatocytes to DEX depended on dose and incubation CA3 chemical structure time. DEX in the highest concentration intensified the bile salts synthesis much earlier than under other experimental conditions. Among the analysed bile salts, cholic and deoxycholic acids predominated. They were conjugated mostly with taurine and to a lesser extent with glicine.”
“The effects of disturbances on coral reef fishes have been

extensively documented but most studies have NVP-BSK805 relied on opportunistic sampling following single events. Few studies have the spatial and temporal extent to directly compare the effects of multiple disturbances over a large geographic scale. Here, benthic communities and butterflyfishes on 47 reefs of the Great Barrier Reef were surveyed annually to examine their responses to physical disturbances (cyclones and storms) and/or biological disturbances (bleaching, outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish and white syndrome disease). The effects on benthic and butterflyfish communities varied among reefs depending on the structure and geographical setting of each community, on

the size and type of disturbance, and on the disturbance history of that reef. There was considerable variability in the response of butterflyfishes to different disturbances: physical disturbances (occurring with or without biological disturbances) produced substantial declines in abundance, whilst biological disturbances occurring on their own did not. Butterflyfishes with the narrowest selleckchem feeding preferences, such as obligate corallivores, were always the species most affected. The response of generalist feeders varied with the extent of damage. Wholesale changes to the butterflyfish community were only recorded where structural complexity of reefs was drastically reduced. The observed effects of disturbances on butterflyfishes coupled with predictions of increased frequency and intensity of disturbances sound a dire warning for the future of butterflyfish communities in particular and reef fish communities in general.

The paradigm was exemplified in the context of the skeletal syste

The paradigm was exemplified in the context of the skeletal system by testing the osteoinductive capacity of engineered and devitalized hypertrophic cartilage, which is the primordial template for the development of most

bones. ECM was engineered by inducing chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stromal cells and devitalized by the implementation of a death-inducible genetic device, leading to cell apoptosis on activation and matrix protein preservation. The resulting hypertrophic cartilage ECM, tested in a stringent ectopic implantation model, efficiently remodeled to phosphatase inhibitor library form de novo bone tissue of host origin, including mature vasculature and a hematopoietic compartment. Importantly, cartilage ECM could not generate frank bone tissue if devitalized by standard “freeze & thaw” (F&T) cycles, associated with a significant loss of glycosaminoglycans, mineral content, and ECM-bound cytokines critically involved in inflammatory, vascularization,

and remodeling processes. These results support the utility of engineered ECM-based devices as off-the-shelf regenerative niches capable of recruiting and instructing resident cells buy Belnacasan toward the formation of a specific tissue.”
“A sensitive and selective method based on gas chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the screening of 23 different compounds including beta-blockers, flavonoids, isoflavones and metabolites in human urine sample was developed and validated. The present paper reports, for the first time, the method for the simultaneous determination of beta-blockers, isoflavones, flavonoids and metabolites in human urine samples. When flavonoids are ingested in combination with drugs that have a narrow therapeutic range, interactions between flavonoids and drugs should be investigated.\n\nSubstances of BI-D1870 in vitro interest were extracted from urine samples by solid-phase extraction (SPE) employing a mixture of tert-butyl methyl ether:methanol:formic acid (4.5:4.5:1: v/v/v) as a mobile phase and Oasis HLB (Waters) as

a stationary phase. Before extraction, urine samples were incubated with beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase in order to achieve enzymatic hydrolysis. Before GC-MS analysis the analytes had to be derivatized with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) into their trimethylsilyl derivatives by incubating for 60 min at 60 degrees C. Statistical central composite design and response surface analysis were used to optimize the derivatization reagent. These multivariate procedures were efficient in determining the optimal separation condition, using peak areas as responses.\n\nThe calibration curves were indicative of high linearity (r(2) >= 0.9992) in the range of interest for each analyte. LODs (S/N = 3) ranged between 0.6 and 9.7 ng/ml. Intra-day and inter-day precision (CV, %) was less than 4.96%, accuracy between 0.01 and 4.98% and. recovery was found in the range from 70.20 to 99.55%.

The disproportionate increase in ARF burden after heart transplan

The disproportionate increase in ARF burden after heart transplantation is a concern due to its strong association selleckchem with chronic kidney disease and mortality.”
“The effect of rehydrated plasma powder addition to meat systems formulated with and without NaCl was evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), texture and physico-chemical analysis. Different model systems were elaborated: rehydrated plasma powder (PPW), meat batter (ME) and ME with PPW (MEPPW) with (MEPPW2) and without (MEPPW0) NaCl

addition. The effects of PPW addition to ME were different depending on the presence or absence of NaCl. The PPW addition caused high mechanical stability to ME without salt and an increase (p < 0.05) of hardness, cohesiveness, springiness

and breaking force. The study selleck screening library of the structure of MEPPWo by MRI showed higher T(2) (associated to larger pores), T(1) (indicating more water mobility) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values than those of ME. When salt was added (MEPPW2) there was a decrease of hardness, breaking force, T(1) and ADC and an increase of the adhesiveness and T(2) with respect to MEPPW0. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Records of the gastropod Melanoides tuberculatus (Muller, 1774), family Thiaridae, in the Piranhas-Assu River basin in Rio Grande do Norte reveal the dispersal of this native Southeast Asian and East African species into aquatic environments of the Brazilian semiarid region, including artificial environments (reservoirs) and lotic systems. The eutrophic conditions of the local waterbodies appear to favor the present situation, where this invasive species reaches extremely high densities, sometimes over 10,000 ind.m(-2) as in Armando Ribeiro Goncalves Reservoir. These observations indicate the immediate need for new studies on the spatial distribution of the species and its potential impact on the biodiversity and water quality of the waterbodies of the semiarid region of

the state. Implantation of regular and systematic monitoring of the aquatic resources of the region is Adavosertib datasheet urgently required.”
“Exposure of Siberian hamsters to short photoperiod (SD) inhibits ovarian function, including folliculogenesis, whereas function is restored with their transfer to long photoperiods (LD). To investigate the mechanism of photo-stimulated recrudescence, we assessed key folliculogenic factors-anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-, growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9), and bone morphogenic protein-15 (BMP15)-across the estrus cycle and in photo-regressed and recrudescing ovaries. Adult hamsters were exposed to either LD or SD for 14 weeks, which respectively represent functional and regressed ovaries. Select regressed hamsters were transferred back to LD for 2 (post-transfer week 2; PTw2) or 8 weeks (PTw8).

Using genetic and biochemical analyses, we demonstrated that CRTC

Using genetic and biochemical analyses, we demonstrated that CRTC Ser-157 phosphorylation by SIK is critical for inhibiting CRTC activity in vivo. Furthermore, double mutants of SIK and CRTC became sensitive to starvation, and the Ser-157 phosphomimetic mutation of CRTC reduced lipid and glycogen levels in the SIK mutant, suggesting that CRTC mediates the effects of SIK signaling. Collectively, our results strongly support the importance of the SIK-CRTC signaling axis that functions in the brain to maintain energy homeostasis in Drosophila.”
“Transportation networks play a crucial role in human mobility, the exchange of goods and the spread of invasive species. With 90 per cent

of world trade carried by sea, the global network of merchant PP2 ic50 ships provides one of the most important modes of transportation. Here, we use information about the itineraries of 16 363 cargo ships during the year 2007 to construct a network of links between ports. We show that the network has several features that set it apart from other transportation networks. In particular, most ships can be classified into three categories: bulk dry carriers, container ships and oil tankers.

These three categories do not only differ in the ships’ physical characteristics, but also in their mobility patterns and networks. Container ships follow regularly repeating paths whereas bulk dry carriers and oil tankers move less predictably between ports. The network selleck compound of all ship movements possesses a heavy-tailed distribution for the connectivity of ports and for the loads transported on the links with systematic differences between ship types. The data analysed in this paper improve current assumptions based on gravity models of ship movements, an important step towards understanding patterns of global trade and bioinvasion.”
“Aims: To investigate switching patterns of major antidepressant

treatments and associated factors in a primary care adult population with major depressive disorder (MDD) using data from the General Practitioner Research Database (GPRD). Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the GPRD. The study included patients with MDD, aged [1870], with a new prescription for amitriptyline, citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline or venlafaxine between January 1, 2001 and September 30, 2003 and having no antidepressant prescription in the 6 months preceding Adavosertib index date. Switching of antidepressant treatment was defined as a prescription of a different antidepressant among all available marketed antidepressant treatment at this time (no restriction of compound) from 1 month before up to 2 months after the calculated end of the previous antidepressant treatment. Survival analysis techniques were used to describe switching of antidepressant and time to switch. Profiles of switchers were described and by-treatment analyses performed. Results: Data from over 59,000 patients showed that 16% switched antidepressants.

006) with a trend of lower recurrence-free survival (p = 0 06) af

006) with a trend of lower recurrence-free survival (p = 0.06) after RFA in HCC smaller than = 3 cm. There were fewer major complications after RFA (2% vs. 8%). Conclusion. While SR is superior to RFA for the management of early stage BCLC A disease with smaller than = 5 cm HCC, both appear effective as first-line treatment options for Western patients with small smaller than = 3 cm tumors. Although safer than SR, RFA is associated with higher rates of tumor recurrence and local disease progression. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are warranted to compare these two modalities.”
“The TET family of proteins has been described a

few years ago. Only recently, their Selleckchem BIX 01294 CX-6258 roles in DNA modification, through the oxidation of methyl-cytosine,

and in normal and malignant development, through the description of TET2 as a tumor suppressor have been documented. The conjunction of these findings has prompted large efforts to understand the biology of these novel entities. Here, we summarize the recent results implicating TET2 in hematological malignancies suggesting that further studies are required to fully understand the role of DNA methylation alterations during transformation. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Twenty-one hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolates from the state of Haryana (North India) were studied for genotype, subgeno-type, serotype distribution and precore mutations. Assays of alanine aminotransminase (ALT) and HBeAg were performed on all samples. Genotypes, subgenotypes and serotypes were determined by amplification of pre-S1/S2 regions followed by RFLP and also by phylogenetic analysis of amplified products. Mutations were studied by

amplification and sequencing of the precore region. Twenty-four percent of the samples had high ALT levels and 90% were HBeAg negative. It was observed that 90% of the samples were HBV D genotype, (subgenotype D1, serotype ayw2), 5% HBV A genotype (subgenotype A1, serotype adw 2), and the remaining 5% were HBV E genotype (serotype ayw 4). The subgenotype A1 was quite similar to 5-Fluoracil DNA Damage inhibitor the South African isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of the HBV isolates, based on the preS1/S2 gene sequences, confirmed genotype E. Amplification and sequencing of the precore region showed 1762(A-T) and 1764(G-A) mutations in 38 and 15% of the samples, respectively. 1809(T) was observed in 5% of the cases under study. This is the first report of the genotype E of hepatitis B virus in the Indian population. Efforts are underway to amplify and sequence the full length of this genotype E isolate. Copyright (C) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“High beta-glucan (BG) barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) have major potential as food ingredients due to their well-known health benefits.

Designed Skin test induced obvious inflammatory reaction without<

Designed Skin test induced obvious inflammatory reaction without

any histological lesions. Besides adding the complement components and polyelectrolyte to the monovalent selleck products antibody leads to an increased susceptibility of inflammatory cells in this reaction, resulting in forming a visible inflammation in a short time. According to satisfactory specificity and sensitivity and visible results in about 15 min, non-harmful and cost benefity of reverse passive Arthus test can be used for diagnosis of scorpion envenomation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Hv1 is a voltage-gated proton-selective channel that plays critical its in host defense, sperm motility, and cancer progression. Hv1 contains a conserved voltage-sensor domain (VSD) that is shared by a large family of voltage-gated ion channels, but it lacks a pore domain. Voltage sensitivity and proton conductivity Selleck VX-689 are conferred by a unitary VSI) that consists of four transmembrane helices. The architecture of I Hv1 differs from that of cation channels that form a pore in the center among multiple subunits (as in most cation channels)

or homologous repeats (as in voltage-gated sodium and calcium channels). I Hvi forms a dimer in which a cytoplasmic coiled coil underpins the two protomers and forms a single, long helix that is contiguous with S4, the transmembrane voltage-sensing segment. The closed-state structure of Hv1 was recently solved using X-ray crystallography. In this article, we discuss the gating mechanism of Hv1 and focus on cooperativitv within chillers and their sensitivity to metal ions.”
“Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have dramatically changed the management and the outcome of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. Imatinib is recognized as gold standard first-line therapy and impressive clinical and cytogenetic responses are obtained in the majority of chronic phase patients treated with this drug.\n\nQuantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) tool is

used to monitor molecular residual disease, but practical issues are associated to measurement of molecular responses. Several evidences have now proved that molecular responses have prognostic LY2835219 concentration significance: patients who achieve early molecular response are more likely to obtain durable cytogenetic response and to present less rate of disease progression. While some reports indicated that achieving major molecular response (MMR) represents the most important endpoint associated to best outcome, some other reports indicated that achievement of MMR does not improve the greatest clinical benefit brought by complete cytogenetic response.\n\nIn this review, we discuss on the role of molecular monitoring, the significance of early response and its correlation with outcome, the significance of major and complete molecular response, the emphasized value of a stable molecular response, the early identification of resistance presenting with increased molecular level. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

15 ng/ml, whereas in those patients with higher values of cTnI, w

15 ng/ml, whereas in those patients with higher values of cTnI, waiting for cTnI to reduce before considering surgery seems to be a wise option in order to decrease the incidence of MACEs and hospital mortality.”
“PURPOSE. To report a case of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with optic disk melanocytoma successfully treated with bevacizumab.\n\nMETHODS. A 63-year-old man complained of visual impairment in his left eye. His visual acuity was 0.9 OS. Fundus examination

showed optic disk melanocytoma associated with serous retinal detachment and mild hemorrhage. Fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography revealed CNV adjacent to the optic disc. Intravitreous bevacizumab (IVB) was performed 3 times.\n\nRESULTS. MDV3100 cost Choroidal neovascularization and serous retinal detachment disappeared at 5 months after IVB. Visual acuity recovered to 1.5 OS and has been stable for 1 year follow-up. No adverse events were found related to IVB.\n\nCONCLUSIONS. Intravitreous bevacizumab can be a beneficial treatment for CNV associated with optic disc melanocytoma.”
“Although native to the southeastern United States, the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus

clarkii) has become established worldwide through accidental and intentional actions by humans. In the Santa Monica Mountains of southern California, the presence of the omnivorous Nutlin-3 datasheet crayfish is associated with the absence or reduced abundance of native amphibians. The original source of P. clarkii in southern California is unknown; however genetic analysis can be used to determine sources of invasion. We sequenced 16S rRNA subunit and cytochrome oxidase LB-100 I (COI) mitochondrial genes to trace the origins of P. clarkii in the Santa Monica Mountains. The resulting haplotype network of the combined COI and 16S rRNA subunit genes showed 19 distinct haplotypes and suggested multiple introductions

of crayfish to the Santa Monica Mountains from possible source locations in Texas, Florida and Louisiana. Identifying original sources and mechanisms of introduction can slow and prevent further expansion of P. clarkii.”
“ObjectiveProviders recommend waiting to transplant patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to lupus nephritis (LN), to allow for quiescence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-related immune activity. However, these recommendations are not standardized, and we sought to examine whether duration of time to transplant was associated with risk of graft failure in US LN-ESRD patients. MethodsUsing national ESRD surveillance data (United States Renal Data System), we identified 4,743 US patients with LN-ESRD who received a first transplant on or after January 1, 2000 (followup through September 30, 2011).

We prospectively outlined circadian rhythms of patients admitted

We prospectively outlined circadian rhythms of patients admitted for long term EEG and video monitoring, using measurement of the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). Seizures during admission were recorded with continuous EEG and video monitoring. The DLMO ranged from 18:46h to 23:13h (mean 21:22h). One hundred and twenty-four seizures of 21 patients were analysed. Seizures of temporal lobe origin occurred

mainly between 11:00 and 17:00 h and frontal seizures were seen mostly between 23:00 and 05:00 h. When correlating seizure timing to the individual’s circadian phase as measured by the DLMO, the following was seen: temporal seizures occurred most frequently in the 6 h before DLMO and frontal seizures mainly in 6-12 h after the DLMO. The results of this pilot study suggest that temporal and frontal seizures occur in a non-random fashion synchronized to SN-38 a hormonal marker of the circadian timing system. Staurosporine nmr (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The mitotic spindle is a diamond-shaped molecular apparatus crucial for chromosomal segregation. The regulation of spindle length is well studied, but little is known about spindle width. Previous studies suggested

that the spindle can self-organize to maintain a constant aspect ratio between its length and width against physical perturbations. Here we determine the widths of metaphase spindles of various sizes observed during embryogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans, including small spindles obtained by knocking down the tpxl-1 or spd-2 gene. The spindle width correlates well with the spindle length, but the aspect ratio between the spindle length and spindle width is not constant, indicating an allometric relationship between these parameters. We characterize how DNA quantity (ploidy) affects spindle shape by using haploid and polyploid embryos. We find that the length of the hypotenuse, which corresponds to the distance from the apex of the metaphase plate to the spindle pole, remains constant in each cell stage, regardless of ploidy. On the basis of the quantitative data, we deduce an allometric equation that describes the PD173074 manufacturer spindle width as a function

of the length of the hypotenuse and ploidy. On the basis of this equation, we propose a force-balance model to determine the spindle width.”
“Pathological gambling (PG,) has been identified in Parkinson’s disease (PD), but such gambling behaviors may also occur in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We sought to estimate the prevalence of PG amongst members of a web-based community, PatientsLikeMe.corn. A survey was constructed, consisting of demographic information, the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), the K-6 measure of distress, and items related to motivation for gambling. Data were obtained from 236 ALS patients and 208 PD patients. Of the PD patients. 13% were classified as problem gamblers compared with 3% of ALS patients (S(2) = 14.005, P <= 0.001).

“The objectives of this study were to develop an innovativ

“The objectives of this study were to develop an innovative investigative model using doxorubicin as a fluorophore to evaluate the skin permeation of nanocarriers and the impact of size and surface characteristics on their permeability. Different doxorubicin-loaded liposomes with mean particle size smaller than

130 nm and different surface chemistry were prepared by ammonium acetate gradient method using DPPC, DOPE, Cholesterol, DSPE-PEG 2000 and 1,1-Di-((Z)-octadec-9-en-1-yl) check details pyrrolidin-1-ium chloride (CY5)/DOTAP/1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (DOPA) as the charge modifier. There was minimal release of doxorubicin from the liposomes up to 8 h; indicating that fluorescence observed within the skin layers was due to the intact liposomes. Liposomes with particle sizes bigger than 600 nm were restricted within the stratum corneum. DOTAP (p smaller than 0.01) and CY5 (p smaller than 0.05) liposomes demonstrated significant permeation into the S3I-201 mw skin than DOPA and PEG liposomes. Tape stripping significantly (p smaller than

0.01) enhanced the skin permeation of doxorubicin liposomes but TAT-decorated doxorubicin liposomes permeated better (p smaller than 0.005). Blockage of the hair follicles resulted in significant reduction in the extent and intensity of fluorescence observed within the skin layers. Overall, doxorubicin liposomes proved to be an ideal fluorophore-based model. The hair follicles were

the major route utilized by the liposomes to permeate skin. Surface charge and particle size played vital roles in the extent of selleck kinase inhibitor permeation. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been proposed as a predictor of antidepressant response. Insertion or deletion of a 44-base pair-long region gives rise to short “S” and long “L” forms of the promoter region, the “S” form being associated with reduced serotonin transporter expression.\n\nMethods: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to clarify the effect of 5-HTTLPR on antidepressant response and remission rates. Data were obtained from 28 studies with 5408 participants. Three genotype comparisons were tested-SS versus (SL or LL), (SS or SL) versus LL, and SS versus LL.\n\nResults: There was no statistically significant effect on antidepressant response. Compared with L carriers, there was an apparent effect of the SS genotype on remission rate (relative risk: .88; 95% confidence interval: .79-.98; p = .02). However, after trim and fill correction for missing data, the effect disappeared (relative risk: .92; 95% confidence interval: .81-1.05; p = .23), indicating that the initial significant effect was likely the result of publication bias. No significant effect on remission rate was seen for SS versus LL and SS/SL versus LL.