The limitations of this study are as follows, first, the study pe

The limitations of this study are as follows, first, the study period was short to assess the change of eGFR from baseline to the final visit. Second, ACR was used instead of measuring the urinary albumin excretion, because 24 h urine collection would have been difficult in outpatients; this study was conducted as a multicenter study, and the ACR has been shown previously to be positively correlated with the urinary albumin excretion [26]. Also, the ACR was not calculated

by the levels of albumin and creatinine in the first morning void urine. Third, we did not measure the true GFR and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, because of the difficulty in performing these measurements in the outpatient setting. In the next step, we consider that additional clinical studies are needed to validate the effect on albuminuria of selleck chemicals llc topiroxostat in patients with high albuminuria levels, because the percent change of the ACR from the baseline to the final visit in this study was set as a secondary endpoint and the baseline level of ACR was not sufficiently higher in the both groups. Also, it is important

to clarify the maximum effect on albuminuria in clinical BAY 80-6946 datasheet practice, its time relationship, and dose-responsiveness. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrated that treatment with topiroxostat effectively reduced the serum urate levels in Japanese hyperuricemic patients with renal impairment, with or without gout. In addition, topiroxostat also exhibited the potential to decrease the albuminuria in these patients, although further clinical studies are needed to validate its efficacy. Acknowledgments We are grateful to the investigators, local study coordinators, PAK5 and patients for their

valuable contributions to this study; Yoshimi Ogawa, employee of Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho co., ltd. (SKK), for contribution to the study designs; Hiroya Hashimoto, employee of SKK, for statistical programming support; and Ryusuke Sakamoto, employee of SKK for medical writing support. This study was funded by SKK. Conflict of interest TH was an advisor to SKK regarding this study and received honoraria from SKK. IH’s laboratory has received research subsidies from SKK. The other authors have declared that no conflict of interest exists. Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited. References 1. Zhu Y, Pandya BJ, Choi HK. Comorbidities of gout and hyperuricemia in the US general population: NHANES 2007–2008. Am J Med. 2012;125:679–87.PubMedCrossRef 2. Iseki K, Oshiro S, Tozawa M, et al. Significance of hyperuricemia on the early detection of renal OTX015 cell line failure in a cohort of screened subjects. Hypertens Res. 2001;24:691–7.PubMedCrossRef 3. Chonchol M, Shlipak MG, Katz R, Sarnak M, et al.

Typhimurium, virulent wild type [38] clpP LT1100 C5 ΔclpP [39] cl

Typhimurium, virulent wild type [38] clpP LT1100 C5 ΔclpP [39] clpP + LT1102 LT1100

with Tn10 linked to clpP + (linkage 48%) [39] clpP/rpoS LT1104 LT1100 rpoS::Ap [39] rpoS LT1105 C5 rpoS::Ap [39] clpP + /rpoS LT1108 LT1102 rpoS::Ap [39] csrA (sup) GMK201 C5 csrA::Kn Immunology inhibitor sup, suppressor of csrA growth defect [13] rpoS/csrA (sup) GMK206 LT1105 csrA::Kn, sup, suppressor of csrA growth defect [13] clpP/rpoS/csrA (sup) GMK207 LT1104 csrA::Kn, sup, suppressor of csrA growth defect [13] csrA + (sup) GMK209 GMK201 with plasmid pCA132 [13] Plasmids pCA132 0.7-kb csrA fragment on pFF584; Strr Spr [30] To investigate growth in broth, overnight cultures were diluted 5000-fold and incubated at 37°C with agitation. Growth was BI 10773 chemical structure measured by optical density at 600 nm (OD600). To investigate growth on solid agar at low temperature, cells were grown until OD600 0.4. Ten μl of a 10-fold dilution of the cultures were spotted on LB agar and incubated at different temperatures: 10, 15, 21, 25, 30, 37 and 42°C. Growth in LB broth at 10°C was investigated by making a 10-fold dilution of overnight culture. 40 μl of the 10−1 dilutions were inoculated in 40 ml LB broth. The culture were incubated at 10°C and at different time points, growth was measured by optical density and CFU enumeration AZD3965 nmr by spotting of 10 μl of 10-fold serial dilutions on LB agar. To estimate the

number of clpP cold suppressor mutants, serial dilutions of mutant and wild-type bacteria were plated on LB agar and incubated in parallel at 10 and 37°C. The growth parameters were estimated by the Baranyi growth equation [40] using the Excel MRIP macro DMFit (http://​www.​ifr.​ac.​uk/​safety/​dmfit). The average and

standard deviation between the biological replicates were determined in Microsoft Excel. Microscopic investigation Bacterial morphology was studied by phase contrast microscopy and by electron microscopy. Bacterial cultures for microscopy were grown as described above at low temperature. A drop of cultures were applied directly to microscope slides and observed by phase-contrast microscopy with a Zeiss Axioplan2 Microscope. For electron microscopy, bacterial cultures were grown in LB broth at 12°C. A drop of LB broth was placed onto 800-mesh copper grid, and excess liquid was removed after 10 min by filter paper. The grid was stained with 1% aqueous phosphotungstic acid (pH 7.0) for 60 s. The grid was examined with a transmission electron microscope Philips EM2085. Both for phase contrast and electron microscopy concentration by centrifugation of the clpP mutant were necessary. Western blot analysis For analysis of intracellular expression of RpoS in normally grown and cold-shocked cells, bacteria were first grown in LB broth with aeration to OD600 0.65 at 37°C. Once the cultures reached OD600 0.

This could lead to miniaturized photonic circuits with a length s

This could lead to miniaturized photonic circuits with a length scale much smaller than those currently achieved [3, 4]. Various kinds of Selleck PF-6463922 plasmonic waveguides including

metal grooves [5, 6], a chain of metal particles [7], metal stripes [8], and metal nanowires [9–11] have been proposed and investigated to realize highly integrated photonic circuits [7–12]. However, due to ohmic loss of metal [13], the propagation lengths of guided modes in plasmonic waveguides are typically short under tight confinement, which greatly limits the scope for practical applications. The main limitation of such waveguides is the trade-off between confinement and loss. Two promising approaches, the symmetric SP mode and hybrid SP mode, are proposed to optimize the balance between propagation length and mode confinement: (1) the symmetric SP mode exhibits a lower attenuation HSP inhibitor than its asymmetric counterpart, and therefore, it is sometimes referred as to long-range SP [8]; (2) in a hybrid SP mode plasmonic waveguide, the coupling between plasmonic and waveguide modes across the gap enables ‘capacitor-like’ energy storage that allows subwavelength light propagation in nonmetallic regions with strong mode confinement

[14]. Therefore, symmetric hybrid plasmonic (SHP) waveguides combining the two ideas of symmetric check details and hybrid SP modes can exhibit a quite long propagation length with strong mode confinement [15–20]. For practical implementations, an SHP waveguide needs to be placed on a substrate. The presence of the substrate breaks the symmetry of SP mode, leading to Selleck Abiraterone the dramatic decrease of propagation length. Here in this paper, by introducing an asymmetry into the SHP waveguide, we propose a novel asymmetric hybrid plasmonic (AHP) waveguide to eliminate the influence of a substrate on its guiding properties and restore its broken symmetric SP mode. Based on the combination of symmetric and hybrid SP modes, the AHP waveguide exhibits a quite long propagation length along with nanoscale mode confinement. In the following sections, with the finite element method (FEM), we investigate the guiding properties of the AHP waveguide on a substrate at a wavelength

of 1,550 nm to target potential applications in telecommunications. Compared to an SHP waveguide with the same structure embedded in air cladding, the propagation length of the AHP waveguide is approximately the same along with a comparable normalized modal area. Moreover, the AHP waveguide has a horizontal slot structure featured with a horizontal low index slot, which can be convenient to be fabricated by layered deposition or thermal oxidation [21]. Methods The schematic of the AHP waveguide on a silica substrate is demonstrated in Figure 1, where two layers of dielectrics (SiO2-Si) are placed on both sides of a thin silver film. The silver film has a height of H m. The heights of the low index gaps are denoted by H 1 and H 2, respectively.

I Franke for her assistance with the English transcript Referen

I. Franke for her assistance with the English transcript. References 1. Boone JM: Radiological interpretation 2020: Toward quantitative image assessment. Med Phys 2007, 34: 4173–4179.CrossRefPubMed 2. Roberts HC, Roberts TPL, Lee TY, Dillon WP: Dynamic, Contrast-Enhanced CT of human brain tumors: quantitative assessment of blood volume, blood flow, and microvascular permeability: Report of two cases. AJNR 2002, 23: 828–832.PubMed 3. Di Nallo AM, Crecco M, Ortenzia O, Ordonez R, Abate A, Benassi M: The breast dynamic selleck chemicals contrast enhanced MRI: Preliminary results of a quantitative analysis. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2007, 26: 235–239.PubMed 4. Miles KA, Griffiths MR: Perfusion CT: a worthwhile

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Jiang H, Zhu YB: Comparison of cerebral blood volume and permeability in preoperative grading of intracranial glioma using CT perfusion imaging. Neuroradiology 2006, 48: 773–781.CrossRefPubMed 8. Jain R, Ellika SK, Scarpace L, Schultz LR, Rock JP, Gutierrez J, Patel J, Ewing SC, Mikkelsen T: Quantitative Estimation of Permeability Surface-Area Product in Astroglial Brain Tumors Using Perfusion CT and Correlation with Histopathologic Grade. AJNR 2008, 29: 694–700.CrossRefPubMed 9. Cenic A, Nabavi DG, Craen RA, Gelb AW, Lee TY: A CT Method to Measure Hemodynamics in Brain Tumors: Validation and Application of Cerebral Blood Flow Maps. AJNR 2000, 21: 462–470.PubMed Histidine ammonia-lyase 10. Brix G, Bahner ML, Hoffmann U, Horvath A, Schreiber W: Regional Blood Flow, Capillary Permeability, and Compartmental Volumes: Measurement with Dynamic CT – Initial Experience. Radiology 1999, 210: 269–276.PubMed 11. Sahani DV, Kalva SP, Hamberg

LM, Hahn PF, Willett CG, Saini S, Mueller PR, Lee T: Assessing Tumor Perfusion and Treatment Response in Rectal Cancer with Multisection CT: Initial Observations. Radiology 2005, 234: 785–792.CrossRefPubMed 12. Molen AJ, Veldkamp WJH, Geleijns J: 16-slice CT: achievable effective doses of common protocols in comparison with recent CT dose surveys. British Journal of Radiology 2007, 80: 248–255.CrossRefPubMed 13. Axel L: Cerebral blood flow determination by rapid-sequence computed tomography. Radiology 1980, 137: 679–686.PubMed 14. Patlak CS, Blasberg RG: Graphical evaluation of blood-to-brain buy RO4929097 transfer constants from multiple-time uptake data. Generalizations. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1985, 5: 584–590.PubMed 15. Metz CE: Some practical issues of experimental design and data analysis in radiological ROC studies.

Limnol Oceanogr 1997, 42:811–826 CrossRef 11 Eilers H, Pernthale

Limnol Oceanogr 1997, 42:811–826.CrossRef 11. Eilers H, Pernthaler J, Peplies J, Glöckner FO, Gerdts G, Amann R: Isolation of novel pelagic

bacteria from the German Bight and their seasonal contributions to surface picoplankton. Appl Environ Microbiol 2001, 67:5134–5142.PubMedCrossRef 12. Alonso-Sáez L, Balagué V, Sà EL, Sánchez O, González JM, Pinhassi J, Massana R, Pernthaler J, Pedrós-Alió C, Gasol JM: Seasonality in bacterial diversity in north-west Mediterranean coastal waters: assessment through clone libraries, fingerprinting and FISH. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2007, 60:98–112.PubMedCrossRef 13. CP673451 Yan S, Fuchs BM, Lenk S, Harder J, Wulf J, Jiao NZ, Amann R: Biogeography and phylogeny of the NOR5/OM60 clade of Gammaproteobacteria . Syst Appl Microbiol 2009, 32:124–139.PubMedCrossRef 14. Jiao N, Zhang Y, Zeng Y, Hong N, Liu R, Chen F, Wang P: Distinct distribution pattern of abundance and diversity of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in the global ocean. Environ Microbiol 2007, 9:3091–3099.PubMedCrossRef 15. Csotonyi

JT, Swiderski J, Stackebrandt E, Yurkov VV: Novel halophilic aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs from a Canadian hypersaline spring system. Extremophiles 2008, 12:529–539.PubMedCrossRef 16. Jang Y, Oh HM, Kang I, Lee K, Yang SJ, Cho JC: Genome sequence of strain IMCC3088, a proteorhodopsin-containing marine bacterium belonging PF-02341066 in vitro to the OM60/NOR5 clade. J Bacteriol 2011, 193:3415–3416.PubMedCrossRef 17. Lucena T, Pascual J, Garay E, Arahal DR, Macián MC, Pujalte MJ: Haliea mediterranea sp. nov., a marine gammaproteobacterium. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2010, 60:1844–1848.PubMedCrossRef 18. Urios L, Intertaglia

L, Lesongeur F, Lebaron P: Haliea rubra sp. nov., a member of Amisulpride the Gammaproteobacteria from the Mediterranean Sea. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2009, 59:1188–1192.PubMedCrossRef 19. Urios L, Pritelivir molecular weight Intertaglia L, Lesongeur F, Lebaron P: Haliea salexigens gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the Gammaproteobacteria from the Mediterranean Sea. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2008, 58:1233–1237.PubMedCrossRef 20. Park S, Yoshizawa S, Inomata K, Kogure K, Yokota A: Halioglobus japonicus gen. nov., sp. nov., and Halioglobus pacificus sp. nov., members of the class Gammaproteobacteria isolated from seawater. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2012, 62:1784–1789.PubMedCrossRef 21. Lee YK, Hong SG, Cho HH, Cho KH, Lee HK: Dasania marina gen. nov., sp. nov., of the order Pseudomonadales , isolated from Arctic marine sediment. J Microbiol 2007, 45:505–509.PubMed 22. Park S, Yoshizawa S, Kogure K, Yokota A: Oceanicoccus sagamiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a gammaproteobacterium isolated from sea water of Sagami Bay in Japan. J Microbiol 2011, 49:233–237.PubMedCrossRef 23. Graeber I, Kaesler I, Borchert MS, Dieckmann R, Pape T, Lurz R, Nielsen P, von Döhren H, Michaelis W, Szewzyk U: Spongiibacter marinus gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic marine bacterium isolated from the boreal sponge Haliclona sp. 1.

Ethical approval to conduct this

Ethical approval to conduct this BIIB057 supplier study obtained from the University Human Ethics Committee. Methodology All participants signed a consent form. The subjects were familiarized with the laboratory setting and the measurement techniques two days before

the study. Blood pressure, breath rate, and resting heart rate were recorded. The chest circumference was measured by placing the flexible measuring tape around the chest at the level of the xipho-sternal junction. Pulmonary function tests performed using a handheld electronic turbine spirometer (Microlab spirometer, Micro Medical Limited of Rochester, England) and the best of three forced efforts such as forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow rate (PEF), and peak inspiratory Selleck BMS202 flow (PIF) were recorded. Finally, participants underwent a standard treadmill exercise test (Bruce protocol), controlled by a computer program. A heart rate transmitter belt (Polar, Polar Electro, Finland) was attached to the chest to transmit the heart rate signals to the receiver. Respiratory gas and ventilation were measured with calibrated PowerCube Gas Analyzer (Ganshorn Medizin Electronic GmbH, Nie derlauer, Germany). Gas exchange variables including: oxygen uptake (L/min), carbon dioxide production (L/min), ventilation (L/min), breathing rate (min-1), respiratory gas-exchange ratios, and other parameters recorded every ten seconds. Exercise

performance parameters BI 10773 research buy consist of time to exhaustion (TE), total work

(Wtotal), maximal power (Pmax), vertical distance, and horizontal distance computed by the treadmill’s software considering the slope angle, speed and duration of each stage. Each participant consumed one bottle of mineral water (500 ml) per day, containing 0.05 ml peppermint essential oil for ten days. All the tests repeated after ten days of supplementation. Participants were asked to refrain from any medium to vigorous exercise and their diet was controlled during the study. Abiraterone cost Statistical analyses Normal distribution was tested using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk tests. Paired t-test used to examine differences between pre-test and post-test. To calculate the magnitude of the difference between pre-test and post-test, a Cohen’s d calculated, using the following formula [18]: Cohen’s d of 0.20 considered a minor, 0.50 a medium, and 0.80 a major difference. The statistical analysis performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (SPSS Version 16, SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL). Results After ten days of supplementation with peppermint essential oil, the exercise performance evaluated by changes in the physiological parameters (spirometry and gas analysis) and functional indicators of exercise performance. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilks tests revealed the normality of the data. The parameters obtained from the gas analyzer during Bruce test presented in the Table 1.

caviae, and iii) diverse subsets of strains that may be host adap

caviae, and iii) diverse subsets of strains that may be host adapted and/or “disease specialized”. The MLSA scheme developed herein in a large and diverse population of strains helped shed light on the unclear relationships among Aeromonas strains and aeromonosis. However, certain clades and the host- and/or disease-associated subsets of strains detected in this study included a limited number of strains. As a consequence,

additional studies are required to increase the size of the analyzed population and to confirm these results. Further work including a virulence analysis focusing on human VX-765 in vivo clinical clusters is also needed. Finally, the MLSA scheme proposed here appeared to be useful for taxonomic studies in the genus Aeromonas. Acknowledgments and funding We are particularly indebted to the microbiology Selleck AZD6244 laboratory team of the Montpellier, France, academic hospital for providing some clinical isolates. This work was supported by the

Association des Biologistes de l’Ouest, by the Laboratoire de Diagnostic Bactériologique de l’Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Lyon and by ADEREMPHA (Association pour la Recherche et le Développement en Microbiologique & Pharmacie). We would like to thank all members of the colBVH study group who participated in this study: F. Carmagnol (Cannes), E. Chachaty (Institut Gustave Roussy), C. Alba-Sauviat (Chaumont), C. Auvray (Charleville-Mézières), D. Barraud (Gonesse), Z. Benseddik (Chartres), A. Bertrou (Carcassone), F. Bessis (Cherbourg), H. Biessy (La Rochelle), V. Blanc (Antibes-Juan-les-pins), Y. Boucaud-Maitre (Lyon), P. Brunet & A. Michel (Marseille), B. Cancet (Villeneuve/Lot), J. Carrere (Hyères), A. Cecille (Digne-les-bains), G. Chambreuil (La Roche/Yon), P. Chantelat (Vesoul), H. Chardon (Aix-en-Provence), C. Charrel (Salon de Provence), H. De Montclos (Bourg-en-Bresse), J.W. Decousser (Dourdan; Rambouillet), J. M. Delarbre/A. Gravet (Mulhouse), D. Deligne (Remiremont), C. Denoix (La Réunion), J. Deregnaucourt (Paris (H. L. Bellon)), Rucaparib datasheet F. Desroys du Roure (Chatellerault), S. Dubourdieu (Gisors), Z. El Harrif (Libourne), C. Eloy (Troyes), A. Evers (Annonay), C. Febvre (Montbéliard), D.

Fevre (Vienne), S. Gabriel (Monaco), M. J. Galanti (Coulommiers), E. Garnotel (Stattic price Marseille (HIA Laveran)), M. Gavignet (Lavaur), F. Geffroy (Quimper), G. Grise (Elbeuf-Louviers), I. Gros (St Denis), I. Hermes (St-Malo), J. Heurte (Beauvais), E. Heusse (Bayeux), D. Jan (Laval), E. Jaouen (Sablé/Sarthe), S. Laluque (Montluçon), R. Lamarca (Narbonne), Laurens (Belfort), A. Le Coustumier (Cahors), E. Lecaillon (Perpignan), C. Lemble (Selestat), M. Leneveu (Poissy; St-Germain), S. Leotard (Grasse), M. N. Letouzey (Villefranche/saone), C. Malbrunot (Corbeil-Essonnes), O. Menouni (Montceau-les-Mines), M. Morel (Le Havre), C. Olive (Fort-de-France), B. Pangon (Versailles), J. G. Paul (Boulogne/mer), J. M. Perez (Pte-à-Pitre), P. Pouedras (Vannes), D. Pressac (Tulle), R.

Anal Biochem 1996, 236:302–308 CrossRefPubMed 26 Storey JD, Tibs

Anal Biochem 1996, 236:302–308.CrossRefPubMed 26. Storey JD, Tibshirani R: Statistical significance for genome wide studies. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2003, 100:9440–9445.CrossRefPubMed 27. Xia Q, Wang T, Park Y, Lamont RJ, Hackett M: Differential ALK inhibitor quantitative proteomics of Porphyromonas gingivalis by linear ion trap mass spectrometry: Non-label methods comparison, q -values and LOWESS curve fitting. Int J Mass Spectrom 2007, 259:105–116.CrossRefPubMed 28. Peng J, Elias JE, Thoreen CC, Licklider LJ, Gygi SP: Evaluation of multidimensional chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/LC-MS/MS) for

large-scale protein analysis: the yeast proteome. J Proteome Res 2003, 2:43–50.CrossRefPubMed 29. Elias JE, Gibbons FD, King OD, Roth FP, Gygi SP: Intensity-based protein identification by machine learning from a library of tandem mass spectra. Nat Biotechnol 2004, 22:214–219.CrossRefPubMed 30. human.protein.faa[http://​www.​ncbi.​nlm.​nih.​gov/​Ftp/​] 31. Hendrickson EL, Kaul R, Zhou Y, Bovee D, Chapman P, Chung J, Conway de Macario E, Dodsworth JA, Gillett W, Graham DE, et al.: Complete genome sequence of the genetically tractable hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanococcus maripaludis. J Bacteriol

2004, 186:6956–6969.CrossRefPubMed 32. Tumbula DL, Makula RA, Whitman WB: Transformation of Methanococcus maripaludis and identification of a Pst I-like restriction system. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1994, 121:309–314.CrossRef Authors’ contributions QX and TW performed protein biochemistry, 2-D capillary HPLC separations, mass spectrometry and data analysis. ELH performed data analysis and bioinformatics. this website TJL

assayed expression of the Na+-alanine symporter gene. MH and JAL supervised the research. JAL wrote the manuscript.”
“Background Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that specifically infect bacteria. They can be found in almost all ecosystems and it is estimated that approximately 1031 phages exist globally (108 phage species predicted), making them the most prominent biological system on earth [1–5]. Despite these enormous numbers it is estimated that less than 1% of all phage species have been detected by the plaque assay because of undersampling, which is often attributed to the use of classical bacteriophage propagation procedures [4, 5]. The ability of a phage to lyse its host bacterium, producing a plaque Farnesyltransferase within a bacterial lawn, led to the discovery of phages in 1915 by Frederick W. Twort and is the basis of the classic plaque assay, the double-layer agar (DLA) technique, which has been used ever since [6–8] to identify and enumerate phages and isolate mutants. In recent years, interest in phages has increased not only because of their potential use as alternatives to antibiotics (phage therapy) but also because of their applications in many other fields (phage display, immunology, microbial genetics, diagnostics, vaccine development, biosensors, etc.).


Competing interests The authors declare that the


Competing interests The authors declare that they have started the process of patent application in the US patent office relating to the selleck compound content of this manuscript. The authors will ask Iran Nanotechnology Initiative Council and Chemnitz University of Technology in Chemnitz, Germany for financial support for patent application fees. Authors’ contributions AN is the director of this experimental study and has drafted this manuscript. MG, as a MSc student, is jointly supervised by SJA to simulate the compound in question, as discussed in [3] and background sections of this paper, and by AN to carry out the experimental measurements, as discussed in this paper. MHY participated in the experimental studies by PL measurements. BI 2536 datasheet All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are regarded as promising low-cost solar cells with high light-to-energy conversion efficiency. Systems

based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticle films sensitized with ruthenium (Ru)-based dyes have achieved a light-to-energy conversion efficiency of more than 11% [1, 2]. Other metal oxides, including tin dioxide, indium (III) oxide, niobium pentoxide, and zinc oxide (ZnO), have also been used as photoelectrode materials [3–5]. Among these materials, ZnO has attracted considerable attention

next because it has an energy-band structure similar to that of TiO2 but possesses a higher electron mobility and allows more flexibility in synthesis and GS-4997 morphologies [6, 7]. The photovoltaic performance of a DSSC relies on the characteristics of its photoanode, which plays a central role in converting light into electrical energy. A DSSC photoanode typically consists of a mesoporous oxide film on a transparent conducting glass substrate. Dye molecules that capture photons from light during device operation are attached to the surface of oxide film. Photoexcitation of the dye molecules leads to the injection of electrons into the oxide film. Therefore, an oxide film with a large interfacial surface area and superior electron transport properties is vital for strong light harvesting and efficient device performance. Consequently, numerous researchers have attempted to develop novel nanostructures with these desirable properties [8–12]. Another important strategy that has been widely adopted in DSSCs to boost optical absorption is light scattering [13]. The basic principle of the light scattering method is to confine light propagation and extend the traveling distance of light within the oxide film. In this way, the opportunity of photon absorption by the dye molecules is increased, so is the cell conversion efficiency.

A temperature controller (model 210-J) and heating mantle were pu

A temperature controller (model 210-J) and heating mantle were purchased from J-KEM Scientific, Inc. (St. Louis, MO, USA). The thermocouple (type 316 SS probe) was purchased from McMaster-Carr (Los Angeles, CA, USA). All glassware was purchased from VWR (Radnor, PA, USA). Synthesis method SIPPs, stabilized with the various fatty amines, were synthesized using slight modifications of a procedure we have described previously [2, 8, 9]. Briefly, 1.0 mmol of Fe(NO3)3 · 9 H2O and 1.0 mmol of Pt(acac)2 were combined with 12.5 mmol ODA

in a 25-mL three-neck round bottom flask fitted with a reflux condenser. Alternately, HDA, TDA, or DDA were used instead Proteasome inhibitor of ODA. Refluxing (340°C to 360°C) was continued for either 30 or 60 min, and then the reaction flask was removed from the heat and allowed to cool to room temperature. The resulting black particles were collected in approximately 80 mL of hexane. The 20-mL aliquots of the collected particles, in hexane, were placed in 50-mL conical tubes and diluted with 30 mL of ethanol (EtOH). The suspensions were then centrifuged at 1,462 × g for 10 min. The solution was discarded and the pelleted particles were again suspended in 20 mL hexane. The resuspended

particles were then equally divided in the two 50-mL conical tubes, diluted with 40 mL of EtOH, and centrifuged at 1,462 × g for 5 min. The EtOH serves to wash the excess ligand from the nanoparticle solutions. Finally, CA-4948 the solution was discarded, and the purified SIPP pellets were collected in a total volume of 20 mL hexane and stored at room temperature in glass scintillation vials. Characterization methods Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to quantify the size and polydispersity of the SIPPs, as well as to check details determine the morphology. A 5-μL aliquot of particles was applied to a 7.0-nm-thick

carbon-coated copper grid purchased from Dr. Stephen Jett (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA) and allowed to dry. The samples were then imaged on a Hitachi 7500 TEM with an acceleration voltage of 80 kV. The resultant TEM images were analyzed using ImageJ Software [12]. At least Uroporphyrinogen III synthase 200 particles were counted, per sample. A region of interest (ROI) was drawn around each particle, and the mean Feret diameters and standard deviations were calculated. The compositions of the various SIPPs were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The hexane was allowed to evaporate from the aliquots of SIPPs in the hood overnight, and portions of the dried SIPPs were then placed in TGA crucibles (Robocasting Enterprises LLC, Albuquerque, NM, USA) after taring. Weight loss profiles of the dried samples were measured against a reference crucible using an SDT Q600 TGA/DSC (TA Instruments, New Castle, DE, USA) under a flow of nitrogen. The ligand and naked FePt content were quantified by measuring the change in mass as the temperature was raised from room temperature to 900°C at a 20°C per minute ramping rate.