The choice of tracheostomy or cricothyrotomy to establish an airw

The choice of tracheostomy or cricothyrotomy to establish an airway depends on the patients’ clinical condition, for instance; cricothyrotomy should be preferred in patients with cervicothoracal injury or

dislocation who suffer from respiratory dysfunction. Furthermore; if a patient is under risk of hypoxia or anoxia due to a difficult airway, cricothyrotomy should be preferred rather than tracheostomy.”
“The study describes the effects of growth light conditions on growth and morphology of stokplants and ALK inhibitor rooting ability of cuttings for mass clonal propagation of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) without application of rooting hormone. Forty five days-old containerized stockplants were placed under three different levels of light: full

sun (Red to far red ratio 1.25), partial shade (R: FR 1; 60% of full sun) and deep shade (R: FR 0.4; 3% of full sun) for 45 days. Half of the stockplants growing in partial shade or deep shade were transferred to full sun for another 15 days and growth and morphology of shoots and rooting ability of cuttings were investigated. Growth and morphology of shoots and rooting ability of cuttings was significantly affected by the growth light conditions of stockplants. Internode number was significantly fewer, but internode length, leaf area and specific leaf area was higher in deep shade and deep shade to full sun regime. Leaf weight per unit area was decreased gradually, when sun-grown stockplants were transferred Cilengitide to deep shade or partial shade and regained on returning them from the shade to full sun. The highest rooting percentage (100%), maximum number of root (6.3) and root dry click here weight (62 mg) per cutting was obtained from the cuttings of deep shade to full sun regime followed by deep shade and the lowest was in full sun regime without application of any rooting hormone. (C) 2011 Friends Science Publishers”
“Systems externally reinforced by bonded fibre reinforced polymers (FRP) are widely used in the retrofitting and strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. A drawback of the usage of this technique

lies on the uncertainty of the long term behaviour of those reinforcements. Researchers have paid heed to this aspect and a number of tests and alternative techniques have recently been described. An experimental programme developed to supplement work of the authors recently published and which focused on specimens not submitted to aggressive environments is described. The specimens used have the same geometry as in the previous paper, but they were exposed to salt fog cycles and dry/wet cycles with salt water for periods of 3000 h, 5000 h and 10,000 h. The interface of the glass fiber polymeric composite (GFRP)-to-concrete was 4 characterized after the systems underwent such aggressive conditions. The GFRP wrap comprised of two layers and wet lay-up technique was used on its preparation and application.

Characteristics of vision loss in this family include early chron

Characteristics of 4 vision loss in this family include early chronic optic nerve edema, and progressive vision loss, particularly central and color vision. Despite numerous medical and ophthalmic evaluations, no diagnosis has been discovered. (C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Background: We have previously reported that cancer incidence for

lung, female breast, and colon and rectum for Hispanics decreases with increasing percentage of Hispanics at the census tract. In contrast, cervical cancer incidence increases WH-4-023 with increasing percentage of Hispanics at the census tract.\n\nMethods: In this study, we investigate the hypothesis that Hispanics living in census tracts with high percentages of Hispanics are diagnosed with more advanced cancer, with respect to tumor size and stage of diagnosis. Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry and the U.S. Census Bureau were used to estimate the odds of diagnosis at a “late” stage (II, III, IV) versus “early” stage (1) and breast cancer tumor size among Hispanics as a function of census tract percent Hispanic. Hispanic ethnicity in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry was identified by medical record review and Hispanic surname lists. The study also used income of Hispanics living

in the census tract and controlled for age at diagnosis and gender.\n\nResults: We found that Hispanics living in neighborhoods buy PD98059 with higher density of Hispanic populations were more likely Taselisib in vitro to be diagnosed with late-stage breast, cervical, or colorectal cancer, and to have a larger

tumor size of breast cancer.\n\nConclusions: Our findings suggest that the benefits of lower cancer incidence in high tract percent Hispanics are partially offset by poorer access and reduced use of screening in conjunction with lower income, poorer health insurance coverage, and language barriers typical of these communities. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17(11):2931-6)”
“Evolution of proteins involves sequence changes that are frequently localized at loop regions, revealing their important role in natural evolution. However, the development of strategies to understand and imitate such events constitutes a challenge to design novel enzymes in the laboratory. In this study, we show how to adapt loop swapping as semiautonomous units of functional groups in an enzyme with the (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel and how this functional adaptation can be measured in vivo. To mimic the natural mechanism providing loop variability in antibodies, we developed an overlap PCR strategy. This includes introduction of sequence diversity at two hinge residues, which connect the new loops with the rest of the protein scaffold, and we demonstrate that this is necessary for a successful exploration of functional sequence space.

Tracheostomies were placed in 181 (14%) patients, of which, 77 (6

Tracheostomies were placed in 181 (14%) patients, of which, 77 (6.1%) were completed before a trial of extubation and 104 (8.2%) after extubation failure. Sotrastaurin A total of 129 (10%) patients were reintubated; 77 (6.1%) were reintubated within 72 h, meeting the definition of extubation failure. The other 52 (4.1%) were intubated after 72 h usually in the setting of 3 pneumonia or decreased mental status. Ninety-nine of the patients reintubated had primary brain injury and resulting encephalopathy. All were successfully reintubated. Most patients intubated as a result of a primary brain injury (981) were successfully extubated. The most

common clinical scenario leading to reintubation in these encephalopathic patients was respiratory distress associated with altered mental status [59 patients (59%)]. These patients usually had atelectasis and decreased minute ventilation, independent of fever, pneumonia, aspiration, and increased work of breathing [39 patients (39%)].\n\nThe extubation failure rate in our neurocritical care unit is low. In patients with encephalopathy and primary brain injury who were reintubated, respiratory distress caused by altered mental status was the most common cause of reintubation. These patients demonstrated signs disrupted

ventilation usually with periods of prolonged hypoventilation. Increased work of breathing from lung injury due to pneumonia or LT-673 aspiration was not the most common cause of reintubation in this population.”
“A series of

crown ethers carrying a pyrene group with nitrogen-sulfur donor atoms, that differ in having three, four and five sulfur atoms in the macrocycle was designed and synthesized by the reaction of the corresponding macrocyclic compound and 1-bromomethylpyrene. The influence of metal cations such as Mn2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Pb2+ and Al3+ on the spectroscopic properties of the ligands was investigated in acetonitrile-dichloromethane (1:1) by means of absorption and emission spectrometry. Absorption spectra show isosbestic points in the spectrophotometric titration of Fe2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Pb2+ and Hg2+. The results of spectrophotometric titration experiments disclosed the complexation compositions and complex stability constants of the novel ligands with Fe2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Pb2+ and Hg2+ cations. The monoazatetrathia crown ether showed good sensitivity for Cu2+ with linearity in the range 5.0 x 10(-7)-2.5 x 10(-6) M and detection limit of 1.6 x 10(-8) M. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Nuclear reaction analysis with (3)He holds the promise to derive Deuterium depth profiles up to large depths from a set of measurements with different energies.

Near infrared (NIR) excitation is preferred because NIR light is

Near infrared (NIR) excitation is preferred because NIR light is safer and can penetrate deeper in biological 4 tissues. However, most photolabile groups cannot be excited by NIR light directly. So light conversion from NIR to UV/visible is required. Nanomaterials that display upconversion or two-photon-excitation properties have been developed that can serve as nanotransducers, converting NIR to UV/visible light to which the aforementioned photoresponsive moieties are sensitive. This Account will review the existing light-based nanoparticle delivery systems, their applications, the limitations they face, and the technologies that have emerged in an effort to overcome these limitations.”

connectivity (FC) reflects the coherence of spontaneous, low-frequency fluctuations

in functional this website magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. We report a behavior-based connectivity analysis method, in which whole-brain data are used to identify behaviorally relevant, intrinsic FC networks. Nineteen younger adults (20-28 years) and 19 healthy, older adults (63-78 years) were assessed with fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Results indicated that FC involving a distributed network of brain regions, particularly Crenolanib mouse the inferior frontal gyri, exhibited age-related change in the correlation with perceptual-motor speed (choice reaction time; RT). No relation between FC and RT was evident for younger adults, whereas older adults exhibited a significant age-related slowing Selleckchem MI-503 of perceptual-motor

speed, which was mediated by decreasing FC. Older adults’ FC values were in turn associated positively with white matter integrity (from DTI) within the genu of the corpus callosum. The developed FC analysis illustrates the value of identifying connectivity by combining structural, functional, and behavioral data.”
“Antiviral drugs for treating polyomavirus BK (BKV) replication in polyomavirus-associated nephropathy or hemorrhagic cystitis are of considerable clinical interest. Unlike cidofovir, the lipid conjugate 1-O-hexadecyloxypropyl cidofovir (CMX001) is orally available and has not caused detectable nephrotoxicity in rodent models or human studies to date. Primary human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells were infected with BKV-Dunlop, and CMX001 was added 2 h postinfection (hpi). The intracellular and extracellular BKV DNA load was determined by quantitative PCR. Viral gene expression was examined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence microscopy. We also examined host cell viability, proliferation, metabolic activity, and DNA replication. The titration of CMX001 identified 0.31 mu M as the 90% effective concentration (EC(90)) for reducing the extracellular BKV load at 72 hpi. BKV large T antigen mRNA and protein expression was unaffected at 24 hpi, but the intracellular BKV genome was reduced by 90% at 48 hpi.

Thus, we propose that P angustum uses CAI-1 signalling for adapta

Thus, we propose that P.angustum uses CAI-1 signalling for adaptation to stressful environments.”
“Neurodegenerative tauopathy characterized by hyperphosphorylation LY294002 order tau has been implicated in the pathophysiology

of diabetic central nervous system (CNS) complication. Emerging evidence has suggested that hyperphosphorylation tau is caused by an imbalance of protein kinase and phosphatase activity. This review focuses on the contributions of impaired insulin signaling to diabetes-related tauopathy through disrupting the balance of tau-related protein kinases and phosphatases. In addition, we describe tau pathology as a potential target for central neuronal degeneration in diabetes mellitus.”
“Objectives: Adult population differences in relative and absolute limb size often are explained as adaptations to different climates. Less is known about other aspects of limb bone

form and their population-specific growth patterns.\n\nMethods: We study postnatal ontogenetic development of tibial and femoral form by a multivariate morphometric approach in a cross-sectional sample of South African (N = 97) and European (N = 81) modern humans from 0 to 20 years of age. Because the epiphyses ossify and fuse to the diaphysis in this time period, we separately analyze two sets of 123 variables. Average ontogenetic trajectories are computed to compare the growth patterns of the African and the European groups.\n\nResults: For both the tibia and the femur, 3-deazaneplanocin A concentration we could show that Africans and Europeans have a very similar average length and average shape until about 10 years of age. During adolescence Africans have a higher growth rate leading to longer adult bones with narrower epiphyses relative to the diaphysis. Despite substantial individual overlap, the average crural index is

higher in Africans GDC-0994 in vivo than in Europeans, from birth on through adulthood.\n\nConclusions: The prenatal origin of population differences in the crural index indicates a genetic determination of these differences whereas limb length and relative epiphyseal width likely are both genetically and environmentally determined. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 23: 796-804, 2011. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Background: Polymorphisms of the prion protein gene (PRNP) at codons 129 and 219 play an important role in the susceptibility to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), and might be associated with other neurodegenerative disorders. Several recent reports indicate that polymorphisms outside the coding region of PRNP modulate the expression of prion protein and are associated with sporadic CJD, although other studies failed to show an association. These reports involved the polymorphism PRNP 1368 which is located upstream from PRNP exon 1. In a case-controlled protocol, we assessed the possible association between the PRNP 1368 polymorphism and either Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or vascular dementia (VaD).

The perioperative pathway consists of 3 interconnecting, but geog

The perioperative pathway consists of 3 interconnecting, but geographically distinct domains: preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative.\n\nDesign: A comprehensive search of the literature was undertaken to provide a focused analysis and appraisal of past research.\n\nData sources: Electronic databases searched included the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cumulative

Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Medline and PsycINFO AZD6244 manufacturer from 1990 to end February 2011. Additionally, references of retrieved articles were manually examined for papers not revealed via electronic searches.\n\nReview methods: Content analysis was used to draw out major themes and summarise the information.\n\nResults: Fifty-nine papers were selected based on their relevance to the topic. The results highlight that documentation such as surgeons’ operation notes, anaesthetists’ records

and nurses’ perioperative notes, deficient in the areas of design, quality, accuracy and function, 432 contributed to the development of communication failure among healthcare professionals across the perioperative pathway. The consequences of communication GF120918 supplier failure attributable to documentation ranged from inefficiency, delays and increased workload, through to serious adverse patient events such as wrong site surgery. Documents that involve the coordination of verbal communication of multidisciplinary surgical teams, such as preoperative checklists, also influenced communication and surgical patient outcomes.\n\nConclusions: Effective communication among healthcare professionals is vital to the delivery of safe patient care. Multiple documents utilised across the perioperative pathway have a critical role in the communication of information

essential to the immediate and ongoing care of surgical patients. Failure in the communicative function of documents and documentation impedes the transfer of information and contributes to the cascade of events that results in compromised patient safety and potentially adverse patient outcomes. Crown Copyright (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: To determine the validity of 15 standardized instruments frequently used to measure the outcome of chronic arthritis treatment.\n\nMethods: Analyses were performed on data collected at a rehabilitation programme (n=216). The outcome measures evaluated were health-related quality of life, global health, pain, physical function and aerobic capacity. The instrument items were linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) (content validity), construct validity was analysed based on predetermined hypothesis (Spearman’s correlations, r(s)), and responsiveness (after 18 days and 12 months) by the standardized response mean.

Because of combined clopidogrel and aspirin resistance and to uns

Because of combined clopidogrel and aspirin resistance and to unsuccessful PCI treatment, a single coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) was planned. Awaiting surgery, 3 days later, the fourth ST occurred. It is angiographically confirmed and thus, CABG was

performed. After CABG, in R406 chronic treatment with aspirin (300 mg/die) and ticlopidine (500 mg/die), no bleeding complications occurred and the patient did not experience recurrent ischemia (2 years follow-up). A better platelet inhibition by ticlopidine than that obtained by clopidogrel was observed. Our case report remarks the importance to identify these poor responder patients as the treatment can be tailored with alternative therapeutic options (ticlopidine, prasugrel, warfarin) and/or different revascularization strategies (CABG).”
“Background: Near-infrared spectroscopy estimates soft-tissue oxygenation approximately 2 to 3 cm below the skin. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate muscle oxygenation in the setting of an acute compartment syndrome of the leg and to determine if near-infrared spectroscopy THZ1 manufacturer is capable of detecting perfusion deficits.\n\nMethods: Fourteen patients with unilateral lower extremity trauma

were enrolled after the diagnosis of an acute compartment syndrome was made clinically and confirmed with intracompartmental pressure measurements. Lower extremity muscle compartments were evaluated with near-infrared spectroscopy, and near-infrared spectroscopy values of the uninjured, contralateral leg of each patient were used as Galardin internal reference values. The compartment perfusion gradient was calculated as the diastolic blood pressure minus the intracompartmental pressure.\n\nResults: Intracompartmental pressures ranged from 21 to 176 mm Hg (mean, 79 mm Hg) and exceeded 30 mm Hg in all compartments but two (both in the same patient). Thirty-eight compartments had a perfusion gradient of 510 mm Hg (indicating ischemia). Among ischemic compartments, near-infrared

spectroscopy values in the anterior, lateral, deep posterior, and superficial posterior compartments of the injured limbs were decreased by an average 10.1%, 10.1%, 9.4%, and 16.3% in comparison with the corresponding compartments of the 4 uninjured leg. Differences in near-infrared spectroscopy values (the near-infrared spectroscopy value for the injured leg minus the near-infrared spectroscopy value for the uninjured leg) were positively correlated with compartment perfusion gradient within each compartment (r = 0.82, 0.65, 0.67, and 0.62, for the anterior, lateral, deep posterior, and superficial posterior compartments, respectively; p < 0.05 for all).\n\nConclusions: Normalized near-infrared spectroscopy values decrease significantly with decreasing lower limb perfusion pressures. Near-infrared spectroscopy may be capable of differentiating between injured patients with and without an acute compartment syndrome.

“Despite recent advances in antibiotic therapy and intensi

“Despite recent advances in antibiotic therapy and intensive care, sepsis is still considered to be the most common cause of death in intensive care units. Excessive production of reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the pathogenesis

of sepsis. Recently, it has been suggested that molecular hydrogen (H(2)) exerts a therapeutic antioxidant activity by selectively reducing hydroxyl radicals (center dot OH, the most cytotoxic reactive oxygen species) and effectively protects against organ damage induced by I/R. Therefore, we hypothesized that H(2) treatment had a beneficial effect on sepsis. In the present study, we found that H(2) inhalation starting at 1 and 6 h after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham operation 3 significantly improved the survival rate of septic mice with moderate or severe CLP in a concentration-and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, moderate or severe CLP mice showed significant multiple organ damage characterized by the increases of lung myeloperoxidase activity, wet-to-dry weight ratio, protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage, serum biochemical parameters, and organ histopathologic scores at 24 h after CLP operation, which was significantly attenuated by 2% H(2) treatment. In addition, we found that the beneficial effects of H(2) treatment on sepsis and sepsis-associated

organ damage were associated with the decreased levels of oxidative product, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes, and reduced levels of high-mobility group box 1 in serum and p38 MAPK inhibitor tissue. Thus, H(2) Emricasan inhalation may be an effective therapeutic strategy

for patients with sepsis.”
“Background: The IALT, JBR. 10, ANITA and Cancer and Leukemia Group B 9633 trials compared adjuvant chemotherapy with observation for patients with resected non-small-cell lung cancer (R-NSCLC). Data from the metastatic setting suggest high tumor class III beta-tubulin (TUBB3) expression is a determinant of insensitivity to tubulin-targeting agents (e.g. vinorelbine, paclitaxel). In 265 patients from JBR.10 (vinorelbine-cisplatin versus observation), high TUBB3 was an adverse prognostic factor and was associated (nonsignificantly) with ‘greater’ survival benefit from chemotherapy. We explored this further in additional patients from JBR.10 and the other three trials.\n\nPatients and methods: TUBB3 immunohistochemical staining was scored for 1149 patients on the four trials. The original JBR.10 cut-off scores were used to classify tumors as TUBB3 high or low. The prognostic and predictive value of TUBB3 on disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) was assessed by Cox models stratified by trial and adjusted for clinical factors.\n\nResults: High TUBB3 expression was prognostic for OS [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.27 (1.07-1.51), P = 0.008) and DFS [HR = 1.30 (1.11-1.53), P = 0.001).

The detection of in-situ caves associated with the removal of the

The detection of in-situ caves associated with the removal of the concrete face during dyke repair is used to validate the statistical model. The degree of cavity erosion is classified based on the in-situ GPR detection results. The outlook factors of the concrete faces are collected by a visual survey to correlate the outlook factors of the concrete dyke to the internal

cavity erosion degree by multiple linear regression analysis. The accuracy of the statistical model is verified by comparing the cavity erosion degree predicted by the statistical model and that defined by GPR.”
“Human 4 arylacetamide deacetylase selleck inhibitor (AADAC) can hydrolyze clinical drugs such as flutamide, phenacetin, and rifamycins. AADAC is a glycoprotein, but the role of glycosylation remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of glycosylation on AADAC enzyme activity. Immunoblot analysis of mutant AADACs that contained an asparagine (N, Asn) to glutamine (Q Gin) substitution at either residue 78 or 282 (N78Q or N282Q) showed a different migration compared with the wild-type

protein. A mutant AADAC that contained N to Q substitutions at both residue 78 and 282 (N78Q/N282Q) showed a similar migration to AADAC in human liver microsomes (HLM) treated with endoglycosidase H (Endo H), which produces deglycosylated proteins. This click here result indicated that AADAC was glycosylated at both N78 and N282. Mutant types of AADAC with the N282Q and the N78Q/N282Q substitutions showed dramatically lower phenacetin hydrolase activity than did the wild-type protein. The treatment of wildtype AADAC-expressing

HuH-7 cells with tunicamycin, which produces unglycosylated protein, decreased AADAC enzyme activity. However, the treatment AZD1208 purchase of the HLM with Endo H caused no decrease of AADAC activity. Thus, the oligosaccharide chain, per se, was not important for AADAC activity in the mature form. The mutant types of AADAC containing the N282Q and the N78Q/N282Q substitutions were not detected by immunoblotting analysis after non-reducing SDS-PAGE, suggesting that the glycosylation of AADAC at N282 was important for proper protein folding. Overall, this study found that the translational, but not post-translational, N-glycosylation of AADAC plays a crucial role in regulating AADAC enzyme activity. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Effects of grazing management systems (GS) on biomass production and nutritional quality of rangeland vegetation in semiarid regions are extensively studied; however, limited information is available regarding their effects on diet digestibility and feed intake of grazing livestock.

To better define the physiological properties of NG2(+) cells, we

To better define the physiological properties of NG2(+) cells, we used transgenic mice that allowed an unbiased sampling of this population and unambiguous identification of cells in discrete states of differentiation. Using acute brain slices prepared from developing and mature mice, we found that NG2(+) cells in diverse brain regions share a core set of physiological properties, including expression of voltage-gated Na(+) (NaV) channels and ionotropic glutamate receptors, and formation of synapses with glutamatergic neurons. Although small amplitude Na(+) spikes could be elicited in some NG2(+) cells during the first postnatal week, they were not capable of generating action potentials. Transition of these

progenitors to the premyelinating stage was accompanied by EPZ5676 in vivo C59 manufacturer the rapid 3 removal of synaptic input, as well as downregulation of AMPA and NMDA receptors and NaV channels. Thus, prior reports of physiological heterogeneity among NG2(+) cells may reflect analysis of cells in later stages of maturation. These results suggest that NG2(+) cells are uniquely positioned within the oligodendrocyte lineage to monitor the firing patterns of surrounding neurons.”
“Cellulase was immobilized on chitosan by the method of covalent binding. The optimum immobilized conditions were as follow: the pH value was 5.0, the glutaraldehyde concentration was 0.015 (w/v) and the formaldehyde concentration was 0.15 (w/v). Both the free

and immobilized cellulase were characterized by determining the pH, temperature, thermal stability and storage stability. The optimum pH of both the free and immobilized cellulase was found as 4. The immobilized cellulase had optimum temperature of 50 degrees C as compared to 40 degrees C in case of free enzyme. The immobilized enzyme showed higher thermal stability than the free cellulase, after 120 min, the NCT-501 molecular weight activity of immobilized cellulose and the free enzyme retained 86.5 and 61%

respectively. After 11 cycles, the activity of the immobilize enzyme conserved 80.27%. The immobilized enzyme exhibited slightly better storage stability than the free enzyme. The Km and Vm values for the immobilized and free cellulase were 8.1 and 1.84 mg/L and 0.01 and 0.0036 mg/ml/min respectively. Cellulose hydrolysis by immobilized cellulase in the presence of a 88 ionic liquid (IL), 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethylphosphate (MMIM-DMP), was investgated. The result showed that the addition of 20% (v/v) MMIM-DMP gave the highest initial rate, which was 1.3 and 13.9 times higher than the hydrolysis rate in citric acid – sodium hydrogen phosphate buffer and in IL, respectively.”
“Animals are known to exhibit ‘personality’; that is, individual differences in behaviour that are consistent across time and/or situations. One axis of personality of particular importance for behavioural ecology is boldness, which can be defined as the tendency of an individual to take risks.