Then, the Student two-sample t test was used for variables that followed a normal distribution, namely, peak concentration (Cmax), AUC, and elimination rate, and the Mann-Whitney test was used for the time to peak concentration (Tmax), because no normal distribution was observed for such parameters. Logistic regression with HM781-36B backward selection was used to analyze the association of variant alleles with pharmacokinetic parameters and alcohol effects. For continuous values, linear regression with backward selection was used. Statistical analyses for multiple comparisons were carried out according to Bonferroni’s test. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and the linkage disequilibrium
analyses were performed with the genetics package of the statistical software R (version 2.4.0). Large interindividual variability in all parameters analyzed is observed. Ethanol pharmacokinetic parameters are summarized in Table 2. Of particular relevance are the 5.6-fold interindividual differences in the AUC and
the 4.1-fold interindividual differences in the rate of metabolism. When these findings were stratified according Linsitinib order to sex and drinking and smoking habits, a statistically significant higher average of Tmax values were observed in women as compared with men (P = 0.031) and in nonsmokers as compared with smokers (P = 0.002). Cmax and AUC values were higher in women than in men (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively), and the rate of metabolism was higher in women than in men (P = 0.001). Sex accounts for 7.6% of the variability in AUC and for 4.2% of the variability in the ethanol metabolic rate. The rest of the selleck inhibitor comparisons were not statistically significant regarding sex or smoking or drinking habits. With regard to body mass index, no statistically significant association with any of the pharmacokinetic parameters was observed. Figure 1 shows the frequency distribution Cmax (Fig. 1A), AUC (Fig. 1B), and the rate of metabolism (Fig. 1C). All of these parameters follow a unimodal
distribution in the population analyzed. Ethanol effects are summarized in Table 3. In spite of the low Cmax concentrations reached in the current study, significant differences in reaction time and motor time were observed in most subjects when comparing these parameters at Tmax with basal conditions (the average of the results obtained before the administration of ethanol and of the results obtained when ethanol concentrations were less than 0.050 g/L). The average increase in reaction time was 12% (P < 0.001) in overall subjects, 13% in women (P < 0.001) and 11% in men (P = 0.001). The average increase in motor time was approximately 7% (P < 0.001) in overall subjects, and similar increases were observed in women (P = 0.035) and in men (P = 0.387). No sex-related differences were observed in reaction time, but both peak and basal motor times were slower in women than in men (P < 0.001).