The preload recruitable stroke work was used to measure myocardia

The preload recruitable stroke work was used to measure myocardial function. Results. The agonal phase was similar between groups. Loss of pulse and pressure were consistent between animals (7.9 +/- 0.5 minutes [range, 5 to 11 minutes], 10.2 +/- 0.4 minutes [range, 9 to 13 minutes], respectively). Electrical silence was variable at 26.9 +/- 3.8 minutes (range, 11 to 43 minutes). All perfused hearts separated and remained off cardiopulmonary bypass. Three of four static hearts initially separated from cardiopulmonary bypass, but two returned by the end of the reperfusion period. The preload recruitable CA3 price stroke work was significantly higher in perfused

hearts. Conclusions. Protocols for DCDD have implications on ischemic times of donor hearts. Machine perfusion preservation can recover DCDD hearts more consistently than static storage. (C) 2014 by The Society of Thoracic Surgeons”
“Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs), represent a major subpopulation of tumor infiltrating immune cells. These alternatively activated M2-polarized macrophages are well learn more known for their pro-tumor functions. Owing to their established role in potentiating tumor-neovasculogenesis and metastasis, TAMs have emerged as promising target for anti-cancer immunotherapy.

One of the key TAMs related phenomenon that is amenable to therapeutic intervention is their phenotype switching into alternatively activated M2-polarized macrophages. Hindering macrophage polarization towards a pro-tumor M2 phenotype, or better still

reprogramming the M2 like TAMs towards M1 subtype is being considered a beneficial anti-cancer strategy. Hypoxic tumor milieu has been proposed as one of the most plausible factor governing M2-polarization of macrophages. We recently demonstrated that hypoxic tumor cells imparted a pro-angiogenic M2 skewed phenotype to macrophages. Furthermore, sizeable body of data Selleckchem Doramapimod indicates for participation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in macrophage polarization. Concordantly, inhibition of COX-2 is associated with impaired macrophage polarization. Prompted by this in the current study we decided to explore if inhibition of COX-2 activity via chemical inhibitors may prevent hypoxic cancer cell induced M2-polarization of macrophages. We observed that treatment with Flunixin meglumine, an established preferential inhibitor of COX-2 activity markedly inhibited hypoxic cancer cell induced of M2-polarization of macrophages thereby indicating for usage of COX-2 inhibition as possible anti-cancer treatment modality.”
“IFN-gamma is an antitumor cytokine that inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis after engagement with the IFN-gamma receptors (IFNGR) expressed on target cells, whereas IFN regulatory factor 2 (IRF-2) is able to block the effects of IFN-gamma by repressing transcription of IFN-gamma-induced genes.

“After primary infection, some bacteria can remain in a la

“After primary infection, some bacteria can remain in a latent state for several years before a new bacteremia, often due to a weakened immune status. This is common for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, less for other pathogens more difficult to have in mind when facing patients with fever. We report the case of an 84-year-old female patient presenting with fever in the months following antilymphoma chemotherapy, due to bacteremic brucellosis (with a hemophagocytic syndrome) probably latent after Geneticin molecular weight primary infection

as a child. (C) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“For decades, researchers have documented significant skews in the production of male versus female offspring in many species. Because males and females are differentially susceptible to environmental challenges and also represent different

fitness benefits, it may be beneficial to exert control over the offspring sex ratio when environmental conditions become challenging. Some of the most dramatic environmental challenges occur on a seasonal basis. Indeed, seasonal variation in offspring sex ratios has been documented in both mammalian and non-mammalian species. The seasonal environmental factor (or factors) that drives the skews in sex ratios is unknown; however, it is essential that such a cue be predictable and reliable and that it does not vary from year to year. We hypothesized that photoperiod, a stable cue of seasonal changes in temperature and resource availability, may underlie seasonal variation in selleck compound offspring sex ratios of mammals.

We predicted that short day lengths in particular, which signal impending winter conditions and related energetic demands, would stimulate an anticipatory skew in the offspring sex ratio. We used Siberian hamsters as models because they are phenotypically responsive to photoperiod but up to 60% of females continue to breed during the winter. The sexes of weanling hamsters conceived and raised in short, winterlike day lengths were significantly selleck chemicals skewed toward males. Furthermore, these skews occurred before birth; embryos collected from pregnant females maintained in short-day conditions were also significantly male biased. Thus, photoperiod functions as an effective seasonal cue, stimulating sex ratio skews toward males when day lengths are short.”
“High content neuron image processing is considered as an important method for quantitative neurobiological studies. The main goal of analysis in this paper is to provide automatic image processing approaches to process neuron images for studying neuron mechanism in high content screening. In the nuclei channel, all nuclei are segmented and detected by applying the gradient vector field based watershed. Then the neuronal nuclei are selected based on the soma region detected in neurite channel.

These dramatically different distributions of immunoglobulins

These dramatically different distributions of immunoglobulins PF-00299804 research buy could allow for human

AD risk biomarkers based on specific immunoglobulin subtypes.”
“Determining the viability of a pregnancy is a major challenge, especially with a pregnancy of unknown location. This review provides specific guidance, including stringent criteria for nonviability, that can reduce the risk of inadvertent harm to a potentially normal pregnancy. Over the past two to three decades, pelvic ultrasonography and measurement of the serum concentration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) (Table 1) have become mainstays in the diagnosis and management of early-pregnancy problems. These tests, which allow earlier detection of pregnancy and more accurate diagnosis of its complications than were previously possible, have revolutionized the management of intrauterine pregnancies and markedly reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with ectopic pregnancy.(1),(2) Although these tests selleck screening library have indisputable benefits, their misuse

and misinterpretation can lead to interventions that inadvertently damage pregnancies that might have had normal outcomes.(3),(4) There are well-documented instances …”
“The Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) odv-e56 gene is a late gene and encodes an occlusion-derived virus (ODV)-specific envelope protein, ODV-E56. To determine its role in the BmNPV life cycle, an odv-e56 null virus, BmE56D, was constructed through homologous recombination. A repaired virus was also constructed, named BmE56DR. The production of budded virion (BV) and polyhedra, the replication

of viral DNA, and the morphological of infected BmN cells were analyzed, revealing no significant difference among the BmE56D, the wild-type (WT), and the BmE56DR virus. Larval bioassays Nepicastat demonstrated that injection of BmE56D BV into the hemocoel could kill B. mori larvae as efficiently as repaired and WT viruses, however BmE56D was unable to infect the B. mori larvae when inoculated per os. Thus, these results indicated that ODV-E56 envelope protein of BmNPV is also a per os infectivity factor (PIF), but is not essential for virus replication. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The morphological abnormality of the acetabulum in patients with primary protrusio acetabuli is almost the exact opposite as in those with developmental dysplasia of the hip. In primary protrusio acetabuli, the acetabulum is excessively deep, while in developmental dysplasia of the hip, the acetabulum is excessively shallow. A genetic etiology has been proposed in developmental dysplasia of the hip, while the etiology of primary protrusio acetabuli is widely debated. Primary protrusio acetabuli may represent a hitherto unidentified metabolic defect, and a possible candidate for such genetic influence is the R2726W variant of the fibrillin 1 (FBN1) gene, which segregates with isolated skeletal features of individuals with Marfan syndrome.

Methods: The framework comprises a number of logically connec

\n\nMethods: The framework comprises a number of logically connected steps. The first step utilizes multimodal registration of MRI and CT to map 2D boundary delineations of the prostate from MRI onto corresponding CT images, for a set of training studies. Hence, the scheme obviates the need for expert delineations BIBF 1120 price of the gland on CT for explicitly constructing a SSM for prostate segmentation on CT. The delineations of the prostate gland on MRI and CT allows for 3D reconstruction of the prostate shape which facilitates the building of the LSSM. In order to perform concurrent

prostate MRI and CT segmentation using the LSSM, the authors employ a region-based level set approach where the authors deform the evolving prostate boundary to simultaneously fit to MRI and CT images in which voxels are classified to be either part of

the prostate or outside the prostate. The classification is facilitated by using a combination of MRI-CT probabilistic spatial atlases and a random forest classifier, driven by gradient and Haar features.\n\nResults: The authors acquire a total of 20 MRI-CT patient studies and use the leave-one-out strategy to train and evaluate four different LSSMs. First, a fusion-based LSSM (fLSSM) is built using expert ground truth delineations of the prostate on MRI alone, where the ground truth for the gland on CT is obtained via coregistration of the corresponding MRI and CT slices. The authors compare the fLSSM against another

LSSM (xLSSM), where expert delineations Galardin price of the gland on both MRI and CT are employed in the model building; xLSSM representing the idealized LSSM. The authors also compare the fLSSM against an exclusive CT-based SSM (ctSSM), built from expert delineations of the gland on CT alone. In addition, two LSSMs trained using trainee VX-770 in vivo delineations (tLSSM) on CT are compared with the fLSSM. The results indicate that the xLSSM, tLSSMs, and the fLSSM perform equivalently, all of them out-performing the ctSSM.\n\nConclusions: The fLSSM provides an accurate alternative to SSMs that require careful expert delineations of the SOI that may be difficult or laborious to obtain. Additionally, the fLSSM has the added benefit of providing concurrent segmentations of the SOI on multiple imaging modalities. (C) 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. []“
“Numerous studies reported that developmental dyslexia in alphabetic languages was associated with a wide range of sensorimotor deficits, including balance, motor skill and time estimation, explained by skill automatization deficit hypothesis. Neural correlates of skill automatization deficit point to cerebellar dysfunction. Recently, a behavioral study revealed an implicit motor learning deficit in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia in their left hands, indicating left cerebellar dysfunction.

The follow-up time was calculated from the time of diagnosis to t

The follow-up time was calculated from the time of diagnosis to the date of death or last contact.\n\nResults: Patient characteristics were not significantly different between treatment groups. The overall survival (OS) was significantly better for GemRT compared to 5FURT (median 12.5 months versus 10.2 months; 51% versus 34% at 1 year; 12% versus 0% at 3 years; 7% versus 0% at 5 years, respectively; all P= 0.04). The OS benefit of GemRT was maintained on subset analysis without concurrent erlotinib or with sequential gemcitabine (all LY2606368 research buy P< 0.05). The rates of distant metastasis, subsequent

hospitalization, acute and late grade 3-5 gastrointestinal toxicities were not significantly different between the GemRT and 5FURT groups.\n\nConclusions: GemRT was associated with an improved OS compared to standard 5FURT. This approach yielded long-term survivors and was not associated with increased hospitalization or severe gastrointestinal toxicity. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Radiotherapy and Oncology 99 (2011) 114-119″
“The new coarse graining model PRIMO/PRIMONA for proteins and nucleic acids is proposed.

This model combines one to several heavy atoms into coarse-grained sites that are chosen to allow an analytical, high-resolution reconstruction of all-atom models based on molecular bonding geometry constraints. The accuracy of proposed reconstruction method in terms of structure and energetics is tested and compared with other popular reconstruction methods for a variety of protein and nucleic acid test sets.”
“Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) [vascular cognitive disorder (VCD), vascular dementia] describes a continuum of cognitive disorders ranging from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia, in which vascular brain injury involving regions important for memory,

cognition selleck kinase inhibitor and behavior plays an important role. Clinical diagnostic criteria show moderate sensitivity (ca 50%) and variable specificity (range 64-98%). In Western clinical series, VaD is suggested in 8-10% of cognitively impaired elderly subjects. Its prevalence in autopsy series varies from 0.03 to 58%, with means of 8 to 15% (in Japan 22-35%). Major types of sporadic VaD are multi-infarct encephalopathy, small vessel and strategic infarct type dementias, subcortical areteriosclerotic leukoencephalopathy (SAE) (Binswanger), multilacunar state, mixed cortico-subcrotical type, granular cortical atrophy (rare), postischemic encephalopathy, and a mixture of cerebrovascular lesions (CVLs). They result from systemic, cardiac and local large or small vessel disease (SVD); their pathogenesis is multifactorial. Hereditary forms of VaD caused by gene mutations are rare Cognitive decline is commonly associated with widespread small ischemic vascular lesions involving subcortical brain areas (basal ganglia and hemispherical white matter).

Group C reported significantly improved

scores at final f

Group C reported significantly improved

scores at final follow-up in all SRS domains and ODI. The group with NIDDM reported improvement in all domains except for the mental health and pain domains. However, there were no significant differences between the group with NIDDM and group C in terms of SRS and ODI scores preoperatively and postoperatively.\n\nConclusion. Contrary to traditional thinking, properly selected NIDDM was not a significant risk factor for perioperative complications or additional surgeries in adult patients with spinal deformities.”
“Many of the skills and resources associated with botanic gardens and arboreta, including plant taxonomy, horticulture, and seed bank management, are fundamental to ecological restoration efforts, yet few of the world’s botanic gardens are involved in the science or practice of restoration. Thus, we examined the potential role of botanic ACY-738 gardens in these emerging fields. We believe a reorientation of certain existing institutional strengths, such as plant-based research and knowledge transfer,

would enable many more botanic gardens worldwide to provide effective science-based support to restoration efforts. We recommend botanic gardens widen research to include ecosystems as well as species, increase involvement in practical restoration projects and training practitioners, and serve as information hubs selleck compound for data archiving and exchange.”
“Posterior expectation is widely used as a Bayesian point estimator. In this note we extend it from parametric models

Selleckchem GSK923295 to nonparametric models using empirical likelihood, and develop a nonparametric analogue of James Stein estimation. We use the Laplace method to establish asymptotic approximations to our proposed posterior expectations, and show by simulation that they are often more efficient than the corresponding classical nonparametric procedures, especially when the underlying data are skewed.”
“Background: Prenatal termination of pregnancy may underestimate risks or cause bias in epidemiological studies of birth defects if such studies measure only defects diagnosed postnatally. We aimed to estimate the proportion of all fetuses with birth defects terminated in the second trimester of pregnancy-overall and for specific defects. Methods: The study comprised all pregnancies ending in a singleton birth, miscarriage, or termination of pregnancy for which health care services were sought, as recorded in Danish medical registries between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011. Results: Of the 420,090 pregnancies, 307,637 fetuses survived until gestational week 12 or beyond; of these, 296,373 (96%) ended in a live birth or stillbirth and 11,264 (4%) ended in a second-trimester termination. The prevalence of birth defects among live births and stillbirths was 3% (9,790/296,373); the corresponding prevalence among second-trimester-terminated pregnancies was 14% (1,563/11,264).

Participants: A total of 167 adult patients currently followe

\n\nParticipants: A total of 167 adult patients currently followed in outpatient clinic with intractable spasticity and ITB pump implanted between January 1994 and May 2009.\n\nInterventions: None.\n\nMain Outcome Measures: Catheter malfunction was identified either by anterior/posterior and lateral thoracic/lumbar radiographs, fluoroscopic guided side port access, contrast agent injection followed by CT (fluoro/CT)

scan, or indium radionuclide studies.\n\nResults: During the study period, 33 patients had 37 catheter revisions. Radiographs were obtained in all cases; fluoro/CT studies in 22, and indium studies in 6. Four cases had both fluoro/CT and indium studies. A total of 13 cases (35.1%) were diagnosed with radiographs; 9 cases (24.3%) were diagnosed by inability to withdraw cerebral spinal fluid from the side

port; 13 cases (35.1%) were diagnosed with fluoro/CT studies; and 2 cases (5.4%) were diagnosed Etomoxir solubility dmso with indium studies. Fluoro/CT studies demonstrated subdural catheter location in 7 cases. A total of 2 of 4 cases with both fluoro/CT and indium studies had normal-appearing indium scans and an abnormal fluoro/CT study ABT-737 confirming subdural catheter placement.\n\nConclusions: On the basis of an internal review of the diagnostic studies used to identify patients with suspected ITB pump/catheter malfunction, a troubleshooting flow chart was developed. Timely identification and correction of potential ITB complications could improve the clinical effectiveness of ITB and may reduce unnecessary health-care costs. PMR 2010;2:751-756″
“Purpose: This research identified conceptually cohesive latent classes of youth dating violence (DV) and examined associations between covariates and classes by gender.\n\nMethods: A nationally representative sample of 2,203 10th grade students completed assessments of physical and verbal DV victimization and perpetration, depressive click here symptoms, health complaints, and substance use. A Factor Mixture Model was used to identify patterns of DV. Gender differences among classes were examined for depressive symptoms, health complaints, and substance use.\n\nResults: Prevalence of DV victimization was 35% and perpetration was

31%. A three-class model fit adequately and provided conceptual cohesion: Class 1 = non-involved (65%); Class 2 = victims/perpetrators of verbal DV (30%); and Class 3 = victims/perpetrators of verbal and physical DV (5%). Compared with Class 1 adolescents, those in Classes 2 and 3 were more likely to report depressive symptoms, psychological complaints, and alcohol use. Females in Classes 2 and 3 were also more likely to report physical complaints, cigarette use, and marijuana use. Among females involved in DV, those in Class 3 compared with Class 2 reported more depressive symptoms, physical and psychological complaints, and cigarette and marijuana use.\n\nConclusions: The three-class model distinguished involvement in verbal acts from involvement in verbal and physical acts.

This pattern of results indicates that morpho-orthographic decomp

This pattern of results indicates that morpho-orthographic decomposition mechanisms do not become automatized until a relatively late stage in reading development.”
“The ‘two-box model’ of planetary climate is discussed. This model has been used to demonstrate consistency of the equator-pole temperature gradient on Earth, Mars and Titan with what would be predicted from a principle of maximum entropy production (MEP). While useful for exposition and for

generating AL3818 nmr first-order estimates of planetary heat transports, it has too low a resolution to investigate climate systems with strong feedbacks. A two-box MEP model agrees well with the observed day : night temperature contrast observed on the extrasolar planet HD 189733b.”
“BACKGROUND: Underground car parks are confined spaces where traffic generates

many pollutants such as toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (TEX) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The objective of this work was to evaluate the removal efficiency of low concentrations of TEX using planted and non-planted biofilters. Two pilot-scale units of biofiltration GDC 0032 cell line were set up. The gaseous mixture was generated to obtain a total TEX concentration of 600 mu g m-3. Elimination performance of both biofilters was monitored for 96 days. Microbial behavior and the potential capacity to degrade the NOx, were investigated. RESULTS: The removal efficiency (RE) was 30% in the non-planted and 15% in the planted biofilter at day 3. The RE decreased more rapidly in planted biofilter than in non-planted until nutrient addition at day 77. Consequently, the RE increased to 70% in both reactors. The potential for carbon mineralization was higher than those found in soils. The denitrification activity indicated good conditions for synthesis and maintenance of the denitrifying enzyme pool in the mound of soil. This suggested that NOx could also be treated in such a system. CONCLUSION: The efficiency of the planted biofilters in removing TEX was evaluated and found to have good potential for improving

air quality. Copyright (c) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Incretin peptides are a group of gastrointestinal hormones that play a prominent role in the regulation of glucose metabolism. Incretin-based therapies (IBTs) have recently selleck chemicals llc emerged as an important treatment option for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These pharmaceutical agents may be specially well suited for patients who are overweight or obese with primarily post-meal glucose peaks, and in whom traditional first-line oral agents have failed to maintain adequate glycemic control. There are 2 classes of IBTs: the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists. The ultimate effect of both types of agents is to augment GLP-1 signaling, which results in enhanced glucose-dependent insulin secretion, inhibition of glucagon secretion and decreased appetite.


hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) provi


hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) provides an opportunity for almost all patients who lack HLA-matched sibling donors. The donor availability can be increased by including the collateral related donors (CRDs). We compared clinical outcomes of patients with hematological malignancies, who underwent haploidentical HSCT from CRD (n=30) and immediate related donors (IRDs; n=120). In CRDs, 29 (96.7%) patients achieved sustained engraftment. In CRDs and IRDs, the median times of myeloid recovery were 13 (range 10-20 days) and 14 days (range 12-23 days), and the median times of platelet recovery were 18 (range 7-270) and 15 days (range selleckchem 7-132 days; P=0.027). The incidences of II-IV acute GVHD were 27.6% versus 39.4% (P=0.058). The

2-year cumulative incidences of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) were 63.3% versus 57.8% (P=0.365). The 2-year incidence of extensive cGVHD of CRDs was significantly higher than that of IRDs (36.7% versus 20.2%, P=0.03). The 2-year incidences of relapse, 3-year probability of OS and leukemia-free Hippo pathway inhibitor survival for the two groups were 26.7% versus 14.8% (P=0.17), 56.7% versus 70.4% (P=0.224) and 50.0% versus 65.4% (P=0.103), respectively. This study shows that haploidentical HSCT from CRDs can provide a safe and effective treatment for patients with hematological malignancies. CRDs could be an alternative when there was no suitable IRDs.”
“To improve treatment of obesity, a contributing factor to multiple systemic and metabolic diseases, a better understanding of metabolic state and environmental stress at the cellular level is essential. This work presents development of a three-dimensional (3D) in vitro model of adipose tissue displaying induced lipid accumulation click here as a function of fatty acid supplementation that, subsequently, investigates cellular responses to a pro-inflammatory stimulus, thereby

recapitulating key stages of obesity progression. Three-dimensional spheroid organization of adipose cells was induced by culturing 3T3-L1 mouse preadipocytes on an elastin-like polypeptide-polyethyleneimine (ELP-PEI)-coated surface. Results indicate a more differentiated phenotype in 3D spheroid cultures relative to two-dimensional (2D) monolayer analogues based on triglyceride accumulation, CD36 and CD40 protein expression, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) and adiponectin mRNA expression. The 3T3-L1 adipocyte spheroid model was then used to test the effects of a pro-inflammatory microenvironment, namely maturation in the presence of elevated fatty acid levels followed by acute exposure to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Under these conditions, we demonstrate that metabolic function was reduced across all cultures exposed to TNF-alpha, especially so when pre-exposed to linoleic acid.

Our model minimizes fixed costs, fuel costs, shortage costs, and

Our model minimizes fixed costs, fuel costs, shortage costs, and emissions costs. A constraint set balances the load, imposes requirements on the way in which generators and storage devices operate, and tracks reserve requirements.

We capture cost functions with piecewise-linear and (concave) nonlinear constructs. We strengthen the formulation via cut addition. We then describe an underestimation approach to obtain an initial feasible solution to our model. Finally, we constitute a Benders’ master problem from the scheduling variables and a subset of those variables associated with the nonlinear constructs; the subproblem contains the storage and reserve selleck screening library requirement quantities, and power from generators with convex (linear) emissions curves. We demonstrate that our strengthening techniques and Benders’ Decomposition approach solve our mixed integer, nonlinear version of the unit commitment model more quickly than standard global optimization algorithms. We present numerical results based on a subset of the Colorado power system that provide insights regarding

storage, renewable generators, and emissions.”
“The tissue structure of a bamboo stem (culm) differs from that of woody species, exhibiting a large cavity in the internode surrounded by a cortex with high silica concentration. Thus, to obtain an accurate estimation of the necromass, as well as carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks in dead bamboo culms, we examined the basic characteristics of culm structure as well as the C and N concentrations of decomposing culms of Phyllostachys selleck kinase inhibitor bambusoides and P. heterocycla. We collected dead culms of the two bamboo species from 15 bamboo stands in central and southwestern Japan, and analyzed the relationship between the ratio of wall volume to culm disk volume and culm diameter, Combretastatin A4 manufacturer as well as

the changes of C and N concentrations in dead culms with wall density, which can be used as an indicator of the degree of decomposition. The ratio of wall volume to culm volume tended to decrease with increasing culm diameter for both species. The C concentration did not change, but the N concentration increased with decreasing wall density. The wall density was related to the C/N ratio, which is a chemical parameter of the degree of decomposition. The culm structure should be considered when estimating culm density. The mean C concentration can be used for estimating the C stock of decomposing culms irrespective of decomposition level. N concentration, however, should be determined according to decomposition level for N stock estimation.”
“The picoplanktonic cyanobacteria, Synechococcus spp., (Nageli) are important contributors to global ocean primary production that can be stressed by solar radiation, both in the photosynthetically active (PAR) and ultraviolet (UV) range.